AIDS poses an unprecedented health and developmental threat the world over including Asia. Ever since it emerged in the early 1980s, it has been spreading rapidly across continents and devastating millions of lives. In the process it has stretched the health-care systems and wrecked the economies and social fabric of many societies. Developing countries, including those in Asia-which has the second highest number of people living with HIV/AIDS-are the most seriously affected. In Asian countries, the problem is compounded by the lack of awareness, poverty, and inadequate funds and infrastructure.
This important and comprehensive volume focuses on the epidemiological and programmatic aspects of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Asia. The contributors discuss the dynamics and determinants of HIV and cover a wide range of pertinent topics related to prevention, care and treatment. These include:
- The health, economic, socio-cultural and security dimensions of HIV/AIDS
- Success stories in HIV prevention and care including 100% condom programme
- Antiretroviral treatment and the "3 by 5" initiative
- Management of HIV and sexually-transmitted infections
- Drug-related HIV
- HIV vaccine development
- The role of NGOs
- Country-specific HIV reports
The contributors highlight the lessons learned in Asia in responding to the challenge posed by HIV and the success achieved by many countries. In addition to HIV prevention, facilitating access to care-including antiretroviral treatment-despite the many problems is now a matter of crucial importance. Scaling up of innovative approaches proven effective elsewhere is also a matter of great urgency.
This volume will be invaluable for all those engaged in combating HIV throughout the world. In particular, it will be of immense use to all those involved in HIV/AIDS control programmes, public health professionals, health care workers, policy makers, health administrators, as also international agencies and NGOs and community-based organizations.
Jai P Narain is Coordinator/Regional Adviser on HIV/AIDS and TB programmes at WHO's Regional Office for South-East Asia (SEARO), New Delhi. He has an MBBS and an MD from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, and a master's in public health and in epidemiology from Harvard University, Boston. Associated with HIV/AIDS and TB prevention and control programmes since 1988, he has held positions at PAHO/AMRO Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (1988-90) and WHO, Geneva (1990-91). He has been with SEARO since 1991 where he has also served as Team Leader, Global Programme on AIDS (1991-95). Dr. Narain has also worked at prestigious institutions like the National Institute of Communicable Diseases, AIIMS, the Indian Council of Medical Research and Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta. He has published extensively and has edited/authored several books on various aspects of communicable diseases, mainly HIV/AIDS and TB.
Message from the Director-General, WHO Message from the Regional Director, WHO/SEARO Preface AIDS in Asia - Jai P Narain The Epidemic Profile and Lessons Learnt so Far The Economic and Security Dimensions of HIV/AIDS in Asia - J Nelsen and B Melgaard The Pandemic of HIV Infection - Ahmed S Latif Lessons from Africa The 100 Per Cent Condom Use Programme - Wiwat Rojanapithayakorn A Success Story Management and Control of Sexually-Transmitted Infections and Their Implications for AIDS Control in South-East Asia - Heiner Grosskurth and Gurumurthy Rangaiyan The `3 by 5' Initiative - Jai P Narain and Charlie Gilks Challenges and Opportunities for Asia Drug-Related HIV in South and South-East Asia - Swarup Sarkar, Anindya Chatterjee and Anne Bergenstrom HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Thailand - Anupong Chitwarakorn Lessons Learned and Challenges Ahead HIV/AIDS in India - Mohammed Shaukat and Salil Panakadan Problem and Response The China HIV/AIDS Epidemic and Current Response - Shen Jie et al The AIDS Situation in Nepal - B K Suvedi HIV/AIDS in Sri Lanka - Iyanthi Abeyewickreme Problem and the Response Response in a post-conflict setting - HIV and vulnerability in Afghanistan - A. Bergenstrom Prevention of Transfusion transmissible HIV in Myanmar - Myint Zaw Trends in Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV - Emerging Issues - Ying-Ru Lo Occurrence and Management of Opportunistic Infections Associated with HIV/AIDS in Asia - Subhash K Hira The Challenge of HIV/TB in Asia - Jai P Narain Antiretroviral Treatment in Resource-Limited Settings - E Pontali et al Enhancing Access to ARV in the Developing Countries - Ranjit Roy Chaudhury Developing a National Antiretroviral Programme for People with HIV/AIDS - Sombat Thanprasertsuk et al Experience of Thailand Social and Cultural Dimensions of HIV/AIDS - Waranya Teokul NGOs in Asia - Key Partners in the Fight against AIDS - Teresita Bagasao Current Issues in HIV Vaccine Development - Jose Esparza and Saladin Osmanov HIV Vaccine Development in Asia - Jean-Louis Excler Index