Aircraft Dynamics: from Modeling to Simulation

Aircraft Dynamics: from Modeling to Simulation

By: Marcello R. Napolitano (author)Hardback

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Description

Napolitano's Aircraft Dynamics is designed to help readers extrapolate from low level formulas, equations, and details to high level comprehensive views of the main concepts. The text also helps readers with fundamental skills of learning the "basic modeling" of the aircraft aerodynamics and dynamics. The main objective is to organize the topics in "modular blocks" each of them leading to the understanding of the inner mechanisms of the aircraft aerodynamics and dynamics, eventually leading to the development of simple flight simulations schemes.

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Contents

1. Aircraft Equations of Motion 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Reference Frames and Assumptions 2 1.3 Conservation of the Linear Momentum Equations (CLMEs) 3 1.4 Conservation of the Angular Momentum Equations (CAMEs) 6 1.5 Conservation of the Angular Momentum Equations (CAMEs) with Rotor Effects 10 1.6 Euler Angles 11 1.7 Flight Path Equations (FPEs) 12 1.8 Kinematic Equations (KEs) 14 1.9 Gravity Equations (GEs) 16 1.10 Summary of the Aircraft Equations of Motion 16 1.11 Definition of Steady-State and Perturbation Conditions 17 1.12 Aircraft Equations of Motion at Steady-State Conditions 18 1.13 Aircraft Equations of Motion at Perturbed Conditions 19 1.14 Small Perturbation Equations from a Steady-State Level Flight 22 1.15 Summary 23 References 26 Student Sample Problems 26 Problems 32 2. Review of Basic Concepts of Aerodynamic Modeling 37 2.1 Introduction 37 2.2 Review of Key Aerodynamic Characteristics for Wing Sections 37 2.3 Wing Planforms and Wing Lift Curve Slope 42 2.4 Review of the Downwash Effect and Effectiveness of Control Surfaces 48 2.5 Determination of the Aerodynamic Center for Wing and Wing1Fuselage 53 2.6 Approaches to the Modeling of Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 57 2.6.1 Wind Tunnel Analysis 57 2.6.2 CFD Analysis 58 2.6.3 Parameter IDentification from Flight Data 59 2.6.4 Correlation from Wind Tunnel Data and Empirical Build-Up Analysis 60 2.7 Summary 60 References 61 Student Sample Problems 62 Problems 75 3. Modeling of Longitudinal Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 78 3.1 Introduction 78 3.2 Aircraft Stability Axes 79 3.3 Modeling of the Longitudinal Steady-State Aerodynamic Forces and Moment 79 3.4 Modeling of FAX1 80 3.5 Modeling of FAZ1 83 3.6 Modeling of MA1 87 3.7 Aircraft Aerodynamic Center 89 3.8 Summary of the Longitudinal Steady-State Aerodynamic Forces and Moment 91 3.9 Modeling of the Longitudinal Small Perturbation Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 91 3.9.1 Modeling of (cD1 , cL1 , cm1) 93 3.9.2 Modeling of dcDu , cLu , cmu P 93 3.9.3 Modeling of (cDa- , cLa- , cma- ) and (cDq , cLq , cmq) 94 3.10 Summary of Longitudinal Stability and Control Derivatives 96 3.11 Summary 100 References 100 Student Sample Problems 101 Case Study 110 Short Problems 127 Problems 128 4. Modeling of Lateral Directional Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 135 4.1 Introduction 135 4.2 Modeling of FAY1 137 4.2.1 Conceptual Modeling of cYss 138 4.2.2 Mathematical Modeling of cYss 140 4.2.3 Modeling of cYdA 147 4.2.4 Modeling of cYdR 147 4.3 Modeling of LA1 149 4.3.1 Conceptual Modeling of clss 150 4.3.2 Mathematical Modeling of clss 155 4.3.3 Modeling of cldA 160 4.3.4 Modeling of cldR 166 4.4 Modeling of NA1 168 4.4.1 Conceptual Modeling of cnss 169 4.4.2 Mathematical Modeling of cnss 172 4.4.3 Modeling of cndA 174 4.4.4 Modeling of cndR 176 4.5 Summary of the Lateral Directional Steady-State Force and Moments 177 4.6 Modeling of the Small Perturbation Lateral Directional Aerodynamic Force and Moments 178 4.6.1 Modeling of cYss- , cl - ss , cn - ss 180 4.6.2 Modeling of cYp 180 4.6.3 Modeling of clp 181 4.6.4 Modeling of cnp 183 4.6.5 Modeling of cYr 185 4.6.6 Modeling of clr 185 4.6.7 Modeling of cnr 187 4.7 Summary of Longitudinal and Lateral Directional Aerodynamic Stability and Control Derivatives 189 4.8 Final Overview and Ranking of the Importance of the Aerodynamic Coefficients 196 4.9 Summary of the Modeling of the Longitudinal and Lateral-Directional Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 198 References 200 Student Sample Problems 200 Case Study 236 Short Problems 262 Problems 263 5. Review of Basic Aircraft Performance and Modeling of Thrust Forces and Moments 268 5.1 Introduction 268 5.2 Review of Different Aircraft Propulsion Systems 268 5.2.1 Piston Engine (Propeller) Aircraft Engines 269 5.2.2 Turboprop Aircraft Engines 270 5.2.3 Turbojet Aircraft Engines 271 5.2.4 Turbofan Aircraft Engines 272 5.2.5 Ramjet Aircraft Engines 273 5.3 Review of Basic Aircraft Performance 273 5.4 Power at Level Flight 274 5.4.1 Maximum Aerodynamic Efficiency 275 5.4.2 Minimum Aerodynamic Drag 275 5.4.3 Minimum Power Required 277 5.5 Determination of Power Required 279 5.6 Determination of Power Available 282 5.7 Modeling of the Thrust Forces and Moments 287 5.7.1 Modeling of the Steady-State Thrust Forces and Moments 288 5.7.2 Modeling of the Small Perturbation Thrust Forces and Moments 291 5.8 Summary 294 References 296 Student Sample Problems 296 Problems 304 6. Aircraft Stability and Design for Trim Conditions 305 6.1 Introduction 305 6.2 Concept of Aircraft Stability 305 6.3 Criteria for Aircraft Static Stability 306 6.3.1 Static Stability Criteria #1 (SSC #1) 307 6.3.2 Static Stability Criteria #2 (SSC #2) 308 6.3.3 Static Stability Criteria #3 (SSC #3) 308 6.3.4 Static Stability Criteria #4 (SSC #4) 309 6.3.5 Static Stability Criteria #5 (SSC #5) 310 6.3.6 Static Stability Criteria #5, #6, and #7 (SSC #5, SSC #6, SSC #7) 311 6.3.7 Static Stability Criteria #9 (SSC #9) 311 6.3.8 Static Stability Criteria #10 (SSC #10) 312 6.4 Longitudinal Analysis of Steady-State Straight Flight 313 6.5 Lift Chart and Trim Diagram 322 6.5.1 Lift Chart 322 6.5.2 Trim Diagram 324 6.5.3 Trim Diagrams for Different Classes of Aircraft 329 6.5.4 Trim Diagrams for Thrust Axis Above/Below Center of Gravity 329 6.6 Lateral Directional Analysis of Steady-State Straight Flight 332 6.7 Summary 340 References 340 Student Sample Problems 340 Problems 349 7. Solution of the Aircraft Equations of Motion Based on Laplace Transformations and Transfer Functions 352 7.1 Introduction 352 7.2 Application of Laplace Transformations to the Longitudinal Small Perturbation Equations 353 7.3 RouthHurwitz Analysis of the Longitudinal Stability 358 7.4 Longitudinal Dynamic Modes: Short Period and Phugoid 360 7.5 Solution of the Longitudinal Equations 361 7.6 Short Period Approximation 363 7.7 Phugoid Approximation 366 7.8 Summary of the Longitudinal Equations 369 7.9 Application of Laplace Transformations to the Lateral Directional Small Perturbation Equations 371 7.10 RouthHurwitz Analysis of the Lateral Directional Stability 376 7.11 Lateral Directional Dynamic Modes: Rolling, Spiral, and Dutch Roll 377 7.12 Solution of the Lateral Directional Equations 379 7.13 Rolling Approximation 382 7.14 Summary of Lateral Directional Equations 385 7.15 Sensitivity Analysis for the Aircraft Dynamics 386 7.15.1 Short Period Sensitivity Analysis 387 7.15.2 Phugoid Sensitivity Analysis 394 7.15.3 Sensitivity Analysis for the Lateral Directional Parameters 398 7.16 Summary 407 References 407 Student Sample Problems 407 Problems 430 8. State Variable Modeling of the Aircraft Dynamics 432 8.1 Introduction 432 8.2 Introduction to State Variables for Nonlinear Systems 433 8.3 Introduction to State Variables for Linear/Linearized Systems 433 8.4 State Variable Modeling of the Longitudinal Dynamics 435 8.5 State Variable Modeling of the Lateral Directional Dynamics 440 8.6 Augmentation of the Aircraft State Variable Modeling 445 8.6.1 Modeling of the Altitude dhP 445 8.6.2 Modeling of the Flight Path Angle d?P 446 8.6.3 Modeling of the Engine Dynamics 446 8.6.4 Modeling of the Actuator Dynamics 446 8.6.5 Modeling of the Atmospheric Turbulence 447 8.7 Summary of State Variable Modeling of the Aircraft Dynamics 447 8.8 Summary 450 References 450 Student Sample Problems 450 Problems 470 9. Introduction to Modern Flight Simulation Codes 476 9.1 Introduction 476 9.2 Introduction to the Flight Dynamics & Control (FDC) Toolbox 479 9.2.1 Equations of Motion within the FDC Simulation Environment 479 9.2.2 FDC Modeling of Beaver Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 483 9.2.3 Alternative Approach for FDC Modeling of Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 485 9.2.4 Case Study #1: FDC Modeling of Look-Up Tables Based Aerodynamic Coefficients 486 9.2.5 FDC Modeling of the Gravity Force 493 9.2.6 FDC Modeling of the Atmospheric Turbulence Force 493 9.2.7 FDC Modeling of the Beaver Propulsive Forces and Moments 494 9.2.8 Case Study #2: FDC Modeling of Propulsive Forces and Moments 496 9.2.9 Auxiliary FDC Blocks 498 9.2.10 Additional FDC Blocks 503 9.3 Introduction to the Aerospace Blockset by Mathworks 503 9.3.1 General Organization of the Aerospace Blockset 503 9.3.2 Introduction to the Environment Library 504 9.3.3 Introduction to the Flight Parameters Library 506 9.3.4 Introduction to the Equations of Motion Library 506 9.3.5 Introduction to the Aerodynamics Library 508 9.3.6 Introduction to the Propulsion Library 508 9.3.7 Introduction to the Utilities Library 509 9.3.8 Introduction to the Mass Properties Library 510 9.3.9 Introduction to the Actuators Library 511 9.3.10 Introduction to the GNC and Animation Libraries 511 9.4 Introduction to AIRLIB 512 9.4.1 AIRLIB s Strucure 512 9.4.2 Generic Aircraft Model: Continuous-time Block 512 9.4.3 Generic Aircraft Model: Discrete-time Block 515 9.4.4 Collection of Aircraft Models 516 9.4.5 Alternative Model Implementation 517 9.4.6 Additional Tools within AIRLIB: The Function air3m 517 9.4.7 Additional Tools within AIRLIB: The Function ab2dv 518 9.5 Summary 518 References 518 Student Sample Problems 519 10. Pilot Ratings and Aircraft Handling Qualities 523 10.1 Introduction 523 10.2 Aircraft Flight Envelope 524 10.3 Levels of Aircraft Flying Qualities: Cooper-Harper Pilot Rating 526 10.3.1 Aircraft Control Authority 526 10.3.2 Pilot Workload 526 10.3.3 Pilot Compensation 529 10.3.4 Levels of Flying Qualities 529 10.4 Classes of Aircraft 531 10.5 Classification of Aircraft Maneuvers and Mission Profile 531 10.6 Flying Quality Requirements for the Longitudinal Dynamics 532 10.6.1 Longitudinal Control Forces 533 10.6.2 Requirements for the Damping for the Phugoid Mode 535 10.6.3 Requirements for the Short Period Mode 536 10.7 Flying Quality Requirements for the Lateral Directional Dynamics 536 10.7.1 Lateral Directional Control Forces 536 10.7.2 Requirements for the Dutch Roll Mode 538 10.7.3 Requirements for the Spiral Mode 539 10.7.4 Requirements for the Rolling Mode 539 10.7.5 Requirements for the Roll Control Effectiveness 539 10.7.6 Additional Requirements for Steady Sideslips 541 10.8 Summary 541 References 541 Appendix A Review of Useful Topics 543 Appendix A.1 Review of Vector Operations 544 Appendix A.2 Review of Matrix Operations 548 Appendix A.3 Review of Center of Gravity and Inertial Properties 558 Appendix A.4 Review of Application of Laplace Transform to Linear Constant Coefficients Differential Equations 564 Appendix A.5 Review of First and Second Order Systems 575 Appendix A.6 Review of Standard Atmospheric Model 581 Appendix B Data for Different Aircraft 584 Appendix B.1 Introduction 584 Appendix B.2 Aircraft 1 Cessna 182 586 Appendix B.3 Aircraft 2 Cessna 310 589 Appendix B.4 Aircraft 3 Beech 99 592 Appendix B.5 Aircraft 4 Cessna T37-A 595 Appendix B.6 Aircraft 5 Cessna 620 598 Appendix B.7 Aircraft 6 Learjet 24 601 Appendix B.8 Aircraft 7 Boeing 747-200 604 Appendix B.9 Aircraft 8 SIAI Marchetti S-211 607 Appendix B.10 Aircraft 9 Lockheed F-104 610 Appendix B.11 Aircraft 10 McDonnell Douglas F-4 613 Reference 615 Appendix C Detailed Drawings for Different Aircraft 616 Appendix C.1 Introduction 617 Appendix C.2 Aircraft 1 Aeritalia Fiat G-91 618 Appendix C.3 Aircraft 2 Beech 99 621 Appendix C.4 Aircraft 3 Boeing B52 624 Appendix C.5 Aircraft 4 Boeing B727-200 627 Appendix C.6 Aircraft 5 Boeing B737-600 630 Appendix C.7 Aircraft 6 Boeing B747-200 633 Appendix C.8 Aircraft 7 Boeing B757-200 637 Appendix C.9 Aircraft 8 Boeing B767-200 640 Appendix C.10 Aircraft 9 Cessna Citation CJ3 643 Appendix C.11 Aircraft 10 Cessna T37 645 Appendix C.12 Aircraft 11 General Dynamics F-16 649 Appendix C.13 Aircraft 12 Grumman F-14 652 Appendix C.14 Aircraft 13 Learjet 24 655 Appendix C.15 Aircraft 14 Lockheed F-104 658 Appendix C.16 Aircraft 15 Lockheed F-22 661 Appendix C.17 Aircraft 16 Lockheed L-1011 664 Appendix C.18 Aircraft 17 McDonnell Douglas C-17 667 Appendix C.19 Aircraft 18 McDonnell Douglas DC-8 670 Appendix C.20 Aircraft 19.1 McDonnell Douglas DC-9 Series 10 673 Appendix C.21 Aircraft 19.2 McDonnell Douglas DC-9 Series 30 677 Appendix C.22 Aircraft 19.3 McDonnell Douglas DC-9 Series 40 679 Appendix C.23 Aircraft 19.4 McDonnell Douglas DC-9 Series 50 681 Appendix C.24 Aircraft 20 McDonnell Douglas DC-10 683 Appendix C.25 Aircraft 21 McDonnell Douglas F-4 686 Appendix C.26 Aircraft 22 McDonnell Douglas F-15 689 Appendix C.27 Aircraft 23 Rockwell B-1 692 Appendix C.28 Aircraft 24 SIAI Marchetti S211 695 Appendix C.29 Aircraft 25 Supermarine Spitfire 699 Index 703

Product Details

  • publication date: 20/12/2011
  • ISBN13: 9780470626672
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 720
  • ID: 9780470626672
  • weight: 1504
  • ISBN10: 0470626674

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  • Saver Delivery: Yes
  • 1st Class Delivery: Yes
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