Aircraft Performance Theory and Practice for Pilots (Aerospace Series 2nd Edition)

Aircraft Performance Theory and Practice for Pilots (Aerospace Series 2nd Edition)

By: Peter J. Swatton (author)Paperback

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Description

Aircraft Performance Theory and Practice for Pilots, 2nd Editionaddresses both European aircraft performance requirements (CS-23 and CS-25) and the Joint Aviation Regulations Operations rules (JAR-OPS 1) and so provides comprehensive and up to date coverage of the complex conditions within which all European public transport aeroplanes must operate today. The subject of aircraft performance is an important part of the JAA Flight Crew Licensing syllabus for the examinations for commercial and airline transport licences, and this book provides a clear and authoritative text on a difficult topic. It will also be of interest to commercial pilots for their annual standardization test and to flight planners, operations staff and airport operators.

About Author

Squadron Leader Swatton joined the Royal Air Force in 1952. He qualified as an instructor in 1961 and taught, among other subjects, the then new subject of Scheduled Performance for Group A aeroplanes at the Argosy Operational Conversion Unit (OCU) as one of his duties. He was posted to the Andover OCU in 1964 as the senior navigation instructor and examiner, where he continued teaching and examining aircrew in scheduled performance until 1975. Subsequently he completed tours at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough and at the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment, Boscombe Down. His last tour of duty, before retiring from the Royal Air Force in 1988 was at the Empire Test Pilots School where he taught scheduled performance to trainee test pilots. In 36 years of service he amassed 7500 flying hours On retirement from the RAF he joined the instructional staff at the Professional Pilot Study Centre where one of his duties was to teach scheduled performance to the trainee pilots. Subsequently he and two of his fellow instructors started their own ground school, Ground Training Services (GTS), for private, commercial and airline pilots where he currently teaches aeroplane performance to the JAA syllabus. He is the aeroplane performance consultant for the CAA and updated the CAP 698 at the request of the CAA.

Contents

Series Preface xxiii Preface xxv Acknowledgements xxvii List of Abbreviations xxix Weight and Mass xxxiii Introduction 1 PART 1 AERODYNAMIC THEORY 5 1 Preliminaries 7 1.1 Air Density 7 1.1.1 The Effect of Air Density 7 1.2 Speeds 9 1.3 Engine Performance 10 Self-Assessment Exercise 1 17 2 Level Flight Aerodynamics 19 2.1 Stability 19 2.2 Angle of Attack and Pitch Angle 19 2.3 The Four Forces 21 2.4 Mass 21 2.5 Lift 22 2.6 Drag 24 2.7 Analysis of the Total Drag Curve 27 2.8 The Effect of the Variables on Drag 30 2.9 The CL v CD Polar Diagram 32 2.10 Analysis of the Lift/Drag Ratio 33 2.11 Thrust 34 2.12 Analysis of the Thrust Curves 34 2.13 The Effect of the Variables on Thrust 36 2.14 Power 40 2.15 Analysis of the Power Curves 40 2.16 The Effect of the Variables on Power 42 2.17 Summary 45 Self-Assessment Exercise 2 47 3 Take-off and Climb Aerodynamics 53 3.1 Take-off 53 3.2 The Effect of the Variables on Take-off 54 3.3 Climbing Flight 55 3.4 The Effect of the Variables on the Climb 56 3.5 Climb Gradient 56 3.6 Rate of Climb 63 3.7 Aircraft Ceiling 64 3.8 Climb Regimes 70 Self-Assessment Exercise 3 75 4 Cruise Control 83 4.1 Specific Air Range (SAR) 83 4.2 Buffet 84 4.3 The Buffet Onset Boundary Chart 85 4.4 Cost Index 87 4.5 Turns 87 4.6 Types of Cruise 88 4.7 Range and Endurance: General 89 4.8 Cruise Techniques for Piston-engined Aeroplanes 91 4.9 Cruise Techniques for Turbo-prop Aeroplanes 92 4.10 Cruise Techniques for Jet Aeroplanes 94 4.11 Summary 99 Self-Assessment Exercise 4 101 5 Descent Aerodynamics 109 5.1 The Forces in a Descent 109 5.2 Gliding for Maximum Range 110 5.3 Gliding for Maximum Endurance 113 5.4 Descent Regimes 114 Self-Assessment Exercise 5 115 PART 2 Scheduled Performance Theory 119 6 Performance Planning 121 6.1 Regulations and Requirements 121 6.2 The Performance Class System 122 6.3 Performance Legislation 123 6.4 Aeroplane Performance Levels 125 6.5 Performance Planning 125 6.6 Altimeter Corrections 129 6.7 Flight Manuals 130 6.8 Performance Calculations and Limitations 132 6.9 Noise Abatement Procedures 136 Self-Assessment Exercise 6 139 7 Aerodrome Geometry 143 7.1 Field Lengths Available 143 7.2 Take-off Run Available (TORA) 144 7.3 Obstacles 145 7.4 Stopway 146 7.5 Accelerate/Stop Distance Available (ASDA) 147 7.6 Clearway 148 7.7 Take-off Distance Available (TODA) 150 7.8 Balanced and Unbalanced Field Lengths 150 7.9 Field-Length-Limited Take-off Mass Calculations 152 7.10 Runway Alignment Reduction 152 7.11 Runway Slope Calculation 155 7.12 The Effect of Runway Slope on Obstacle Calculations 156 7.13 Landing Distance Available (LDA) 157 7.14 Runway End Safety Area (RESA) 158 Self-Assessment Exercise 7 159 8 Runway Surfaces 163 8.1 Aerodrome Pavement Strength 163 8.2 The Pavement Strength Reporting System 164 8.3 Aircraft Classification Number (ACN) 166 8.4 Contaminated Surfaces 166 8.5 Braking Coefficient of Friction 168 8.6 Surface Contaminants 170 8.7 The Effect of Runway Contamination 172 8.8 Hydroplaning 178 Self-Assessment Exercise 8 181 9 The Variables 185 9.1 Air Density 185 9.2 Wind Component 187 9.3 Aeroplane Flap Setting 190 9.4 Aeroplane Mass 191 9.5 Runway Slope and Surface 192 9.6 Miscellaneous Variables 193 9.7 The Maximum Take-off Mass 195 9.8 Calculations 196 Self-Assessment Exercise 9 199 10 Speeds 205 10.1 General 205 10.2 Summary 206 10.3 Stalling Speeds 207 10.4 Take-off Speeds 209 10.5 V Speeds and Take-off Field Lengths 220 10.6 Climb Speeds 221 10.7 Control Speeds 223 10.8 Landing Speeds 224 10.9 Other Significant Speeds 227 Self-Assessment Exercise 10 231 PART 3 Scheduled Performance Practice 239 11 Class B Take-off 241 11.1 General Regulations 241 11.2 Take-off Speeds 242 11.3 Take-off Requirements 243 11.4 Take-off Distance Requirements 244 11.5 Class B Take-off Calculations 245 Self-Assessment Exercise 11 253 12 Class B Take-off Climb 257 12.1 General Requirements 257 12.2 Climb Minimum-Gradient Requirements 258 12.3 Obstacle Clearance Requirements 259 12.4 Take-off Climb Calculations 263 12.5 Climb Calculations SEP1 & MEP1 265 Self-Assessment Exercise 12 273 13 Class B En-route and Landing 277 13.1 En-route 277 13.2 Landing 280 Self-Assessment Exercise 13 293 14 Class A : Take-off Theory 297 14.1 General Regulations 297 14.2 Field-Length Requirements 299 14.3 Class A FLL TOM Analysis 305 14.4 Field-Length Requirements Analysis 306 14.5 Rapid Calculation Methods 316 Self-Assessment Exercise 14 323 15 Take-off Calculations 327 15.1 Field-Length-Limited Take-off Mass 327 15.2 The Aeroplane Flight Manual (AFM) 327 15.3 CAP 698 Section 4 328 15.4 Take-off Mass and Distance Calculations 328 15.5 Take-off Abnormalities 336 15.6 The Maximum Take-off Mass 344 Self-Assessment Exercise 15 345 16 Class A Take-off Climb 349 16.1 The Take-off Climb Requirements 349 16.2 The Relationship of NFP to GFP 353 16.3 Climb-Limited TOM 357 16.4 MRJT Climb-Limited TOM Calculations 362 16.5 Obstacle Clearance 363 16.6 MRJT Obstacle-Limited TOM Calculations 365 16.7 Planned Turns 367 16.8 The Performance-Limited Take-off Mass 371 Self-Assessment Exercise 16 373 17 Class A En-Route 381 17.1 En-route Required Navigation Performance 381 17.2 Descent Gradient Diminishment Requirements 382 17.3 Terminal Aerodromes 382 17.4 En-Route Requirements for all Class A Aircraft 383 17.5 En-Route Requirements for Three and Four-engined Aircraft 384 17.6 En-Route Requirements for Twin-engined Aircraft 385 Passenger Seats 385 17.7 Maximum Distance from an Adequate Aerodrome (Non-ETOPS Aeroplanes) 386 17.8 ETOPS Aeroplanes 387 17.9 Obstacle Clearance Requirements: All Class A Aeroplanes 389 17.10 Ceilings 390 17.11 Drift-Down Technique 391 17.12 Stabilizing Altitudes 392 17.13 Route Profile Comparisons 393 17.14 En-route Alternate Aerodromes 395 17.15 Fuel Jettisoning 395 17.16 En-route Calculations 397 Self-Assessment Exercise 17 405 18 Class A Landing 409 18.1 The Landing Regulations 409 18.2 The Landing Field-Length Requirements 410 18.3 Approaches 415 18.4 Short-field Landings 415 18.5 The Climb-Limited Landing Mass 416 18.6 Climb-Limited Landing Mass Calculations 417 18.7 Normal Field-Length Limited Landing Mass Calculations 419 18.8 Scheduled Landing Mass Calculations 421 18.9 The Quick Turnaround Limit 425 Self-Assessment Exercise 18 427 PART 4 CONCLUSION 431 19 Definitions 433 19.1 Speeds 433 19.2 Distances 439 19.3 Altitude, Elevation and Height 441 19.4 Weight and Mass 442 19.5 ETOPS 444 19.6 Obstacles 444 19.7 Performance 445 19.8 Power Unit(s) 445 19.9 Surfaces and Areas 446 19.10 Temperature 446 19.11 Formulae used in Performance 447 19.11.1 Aerodynamic Theory 447 20 Answers to Self-Assessment Exercises 449 Self-Assessment Exercise 1 449 Self-Assessment Exercise 2 449 Self-Assessment Exercise 3 450 Self-Assessment Exercise 4 452 Self-Assessment Exercise 5 452 Self-Assessment Exercise 6 452 Self-Assessment Exercise 7 454 Self-Assessment Exercise 8 454 Self-Assessment Exercise 9 455 Self-Assessment Exercise 10 455 Self-Assessment Exercise 11 459 Self-Assessment Exercise 12 462 Self-Assessment Exercise 13 464 Self-Assessment Exercise 14 466 Self-Assessment Exercise 15 470 Self-Assessment Exercise 16 478 Self-Assessment Exercise 17 482 Self-Assessment Exercise 18 485 Bibliography 487 Index 489

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780470773130
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 532
  • ID: 9780470773130
  • weight: 900
  • ISBN10: 0470773138
  • edition: 2nd Edition

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