Straightforward methods to design and operate aircraft to meet performance specifications Aircraft Performance sets forth a group of tested and proven methods needed to determine the performance of an aircraft. The central theme of this book is the energy method, which enhances understanding of the standard methods and provides accessibility to advanced topics. As a result, readers gain a thorough understanding of the performance issues involved in operating an aircraft in an efficient and economic manner. While covering all the standard topics--level and climbing flight, range and endurance, take-off and landing, and maneuvering flight--the book focuses on the energy methods applied to path performance analysis. Throughout the text, numerous examples from both the commercial and military sectors show readers how the concepts and calculations are applied to real-life situations. Problems, ranging from basic to complex, test the readers' understanding and provide an opportunity for essential practice. To help focus the readers' attention on core issues, this text assumes that aerodynamics and propulsion are known inputs.
Special appendices are provided to present some aerodynamic and propulsive equations and data. In general, topics are separated into horizontal and vertical plane approaches. Following an introduction and overview, basic energy concepts are employed to obtain a fundamental performance equation. This text, with its extensive use of examples and problem sets, is ideal for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in engineering. It also serves as a reference for design engineers in both military and industrial sectors who want a set of clear and reliable methods to calculate aircraft performance.
MAIDO SAARLAS, who is recently retired, has been a professor or chairman of the Aerospace Engineering Department at the United States Naval Academy for the last thirty-eight years. He received his undergraduate and master's degrees at the University of Illinois and his doctorate at the University of Cincinnati. His industrial experience includes work with Bell Aircraft, North American, Douglas Aircraft, and General Electric companies. He is an author or coauthor of two books: Steam and Gas Turbines for Marine Propulsion and An Introduction to Aerospace Propulsion.
1 The General Performance Problem. 1.1 Introduction. 1.2 Performance Characteristics. 1.2.1 Absolute Performance Characteristics. 1.2.2 Functional Performance Characteristics. 1.3 The Approach. 2 Equations of Motion. 2.1 General Information. 2.2 The Energy Approach. 3 The Basics. 3.1 Fundamental Performance Equation. 3.2 Stalling Speed. 3.3 Maximum Velocity and Ceiling. 3.3.1 General Considerations. 3.3.2 Drag and Drag Polar. 3.3.3 Flight Envelope: Vmax, Vmin. 3.3.4 Power Required and Power Available. 3.3.5 Turboprop Engines. 3.4 Gliding Flight. 3.4.1 Glide Angle and Sinking Speed. 3.4.2 Glide Range and Endurance. 4 Climbing Flight. 4.1 General. 4.2 Rate of Climb, Climb Angle. 4.3 Time to Climb. 4.4 Other Methods. 4.4.1 Shallow Flight Paths. 4.4.2 Load Factor n ≠ 1. 4.4.3 Partial Power and Excess Power Considerations. 5 Range and Endurance. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Approximate, But Most Used, Methods. 5.2.1 Reciprocating Engine. 5.2.2 Jet Aircraft. 5.3 Range Integration Method. 5.3.1 Basic Methodology. 5.3.2 An Operational Approach. 5.4 Other Considerations. 5.4.1 Flight Speeds. 5.4.2 Effect of Energy Change on Range. 5.5 Endurance. 5.5.1 Reciprocating Engines. 5.5.2 Turbojets. 5.5.3 Endurance Integration Method. 5.6 Additional Range and Endurance Topics. 5.6.1 The Effect of Wind. 5.6.2 Some Range and Endurance Comparisons. 6 Nonsteady Flight in the Vertical Plane. 6.1 Take-off and Landing. 6.2 Take-off Analysis. 6.2.1 Ground Run. 6.2.2 Rotation Distance. 6.2.3 Transition Distance. 6.2.4 Take-off Time. 6.2.5 Factors Influencing the Take-off. 6.3 Landing. 6.3.1 Landing Phases. 6.3.2 Landing Run. 6.3.3 The Approach Distance. 6.3.4 The Flare Distance. 6.4 Accelerating Flight. 7 Maneuvering Flight. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Turns in Vertical Plane: Pull-Ups or Push-Overs. 7.3 V-n Diagram. 7.4 Turning Flight in Horizontal Plane. 7.5 Maximum Sustained Turning Performance. 7.5.1 Maximum Load Factor. 7.5.2 Minimum Turn Radius. 7.5.3 Maximum Turning Rate. 7.6 The Maneuvering Diagram. 7.7 Spiral Flight. 8 Additional Topics. 8.1 Constraint Plot. 8.1.1 Take-off and Landing. 8.1.2 Constraints Tied to Performance Equation. 8.2 Energy Methods. A Properties of Standard Atmosphere. B On the Drag Coefficient. C Selected Aircraft Data. D Thrust Data for Performance Calculations. E Some Useful Conversion Factors. Index.
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