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The response of the U.S. federal government to the events of September 11, 2001 has reflected the challenge of striking a balance between implementing security measures to deter terrorist attacks while at the same time limiting disruption to air commerce. Airport and Aviation Security: U.S. Policy and Strategy in the Age of Global Terrorism is a comprehensive reference that examines the persistent threats to aviation security that led up to the terrorist attacks of September 11th, describes subsequent terror plots against aviation assets, and explores U.S. efforts to counter and mitigate these threats. Addressing the homeland security challenges facing the U.S. in the age of terrorism, this text explores: * Security protocol prior to 9/11 * Precursors to 9/11 * The rising threat of Al Qaeda * Tactical and congressional response to 9/11, including new legislation * The broader context of risk assessment * Intelligence gathering * Airport security, including passenger, baggage, and employee screening * Airline in-flight security measures * Airport perimeter security * The threat of shoulder-fired missiles * Security for GA (general aviation) operations and airports Beginning with a historical backdrop describing the dawn of the age of global terrorism in the 1960s and continuing up until the present time, the book demonstrates the broad social and political context underlying recent changes in the aviation security system as a direct result of the 9/11 attacks.
Coverage examines ongoing threats and vulnerabilities to the aviation infrastructure, including an exploration of how past terrorist incidents have come to shape U.S. policy and strategy.
Bart Elias is a specialist in aviation policy for the U.S. Congressional Research Service (CRS) in Washington, DC.
Pre-9/11 Threats to Aviation Security and the U.S. Policy Response The Significance of Aviation Terrorism The Late 1960s and Early 1970s: The Dawn of the Age of Global Terrorism The Looming Menace of Aircraft Bombings The 1980s: The Shifting Threat The 1990s: The Failure to Imagine and Adequately Prepare The 9/11 Attacks and the Ensuing Policy Debate Precursors to 9/11 Bojinka Plot Rising Threat of Al Qaeda Buildup to 9/11 Preattack Phase: Terrorists in our Midst 9/11 Attacks Tactical Response on September 11, 2001 DOT Rapid Response Teams Congressional Response to the 9/11 Attacks Aviation and Transportation Security Act (ATSA, P.L. 107-71) Homeland Security Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-296) Vision 100: The Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act (P.L. 108-176) Policy Refinement in Response to the Evolving Terrorist Threat The 9/11 Commission and Its Impact on Aviation Security Policy Aviation Security-Related Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission National Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-458) TSA Regulations to Strengthen Air Cargo and the Push for 100% Cargo Screening Lingering Congressional Policy Concerns Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007 (P.L. 110-53) Continuing Terrorist Threat Evolving Terror Threat Homegrown Terrorist Threats in the United States An Asymmetric Threat Intent on Diminishing Our Resolve Cost of Protecting Aviation The U.S. Strategy for Combating Terror Threats to the Aviation Domain Pre-9/11 Approaches to Aviation Security Post-9/11 Actions Addressing Aviation Security Policy and Strategy The National Aviation Security Policy Security Threats to Aviation The Risk-Based Framework Strategic Objectives Strategic Actions Strategic Roles and Responsibilities Aviation Mode-Specific Plans The Air Domain Surveillance and Intelligence Integration Plan The International Outreach and International Aviation Threat Reduction Plans The Aviation Operational Threat Response Plan The Domestic Outreach Plan Issues for Consideration Evaluating and Managing Security Risks Risk Assessment Methods Using the Risk-Based Framework to Determine a Risk Valuation and Assess Costs and Benefits Approaches for Developing Complex Models of Risk in the Aviation Security Domain Mitigating Aviation Security Risk The Multilayered Approach to Aviation Security Evaluating the Effectiveness of Mitigation Measures and Security Systems Assessing the Impact of Security Measures on Air Transportation System Efficiency Mitigating the Consequences of an Attack Exploiting Intelligence and Counterterrorism Information An Overview of Intelligence Gathering and Analysis Intelligence Reforms in Response to the Global Terror Threat TSA's Role in Transportation Security Intelligence Tracking Terrorist Travel in the Aviation Mode Airline Passenger Prescreening and Terrorist Watch Lists Policy Issues Related to Passenger Prescreening and Terrorist Watch List Checks Future Directions for Exploiting Intelligence Information to Strengthen Aviation Security Using Intelligence Information to Identify Terrorist Networks Data Fusion in the Aviation Environment Passenger and Baggage Screening Policy Considerations for Aviation Security Screening Checkpoint Screening Human Performance Potential Impacts of Respecting Privacy on Screening Performance Covert Testing Threat Image Projection X-Ray Imagery and Carry-On Baggage Screening Performance Passenger Checkpoint Efficiency The Evolution of Checkpoint Design Next Generation Checkpoint Technologies Screening Airport Workers Screening and Vetting of Airline Crews Checked Baggage Screening Proposed Strategy for Baggage Screening Optimization Options for Reducing Baggage Firearms in Checked Baggage Screener Workforce Issues Screener Retention Airline In-Flight Security Measures Hardened Cockpit Doors Secondary Flight Deck Barriers Flight Deck Access Procedures Video Surveillance of the Airliner Cabin and Improved Cabin-Cockpit Communications Uninterruptable Aircraft Transponders Future Systems for Aircraft Surveillance The Federal Air Marshal Service Armed Pilots and Crew Security Training Consideration of Less-Than-Lethal Weapons for In-Flight Security Security Training for Airline Crews Armed Law Enforcement on Airliners Handling Disruptive Passengers and Other In-Flight Security Incidents Possible Terrorist Probing Incidents Responding to In-Flight Security Threats Mitigating the In-Flight Explosives Threat and Improving Aircraft Survivability In-Flight Chemical and Biological Threats Commercial Airport Access Controls and Perimeter Security Security Risk in the Airport Environment Commercial Airport Security Program Concepts Airport Security Technology Investment Airport Security Programs Airport Security Terminology Airport Security Risk Categories Evaluating Airport Compliance with Security Requirements Airport Physical Security and Security Technologies Airport Perimeter Security and Access Control Measures Surveillance Technologies Patrolling the Airfield and the Airport Perimeter Security Awareness Training Law Enforcement Support Access Control Measures Background Check Requirements Biometric Technologies for Credentialing and Access Controls Planning, Design, and Construction Guidelines for Commercial Airport Security Critical Incident Management and Response References Mitigating the Threat of Shoulder-Fired Missiles and Other Standoff Weapons The Proliferation of Shoulder-Fired Weapons and the Terrorist Threat They Pose The Vulnerability of Commercial Airliners Assessing the Potential Consequences of a Standoff Attack U.S. Policy and Strategic Approaches Ground-Based Countermeasures Air Cargo Security Security Risks Posed by Air Cargo Screening versus Physical Inspection of Cargo Shipments Security in the All-Cargo Environment Physical Screening and Inspection Canine Explosives Detection Teams Cargo Screening Technology Cost of Cargo Screening and Inspection Technologies for Effectively Securing the Supply Chain Physical Security of Air Cargo Facilities Inspection and Oversight of Air Cargo Facilities Security Training for Air Cargo Personnel Increased Control over Access to Aircraft and Cargo Facilities Security for GA Operations and Airports What Is GA? The Economic Impact of GA The Security Challenge Posed by GA Security Vulnerabilities The Terrorist Threat Potential Consequences of an Attack Using GA Aircraft Options for Mitigation of GA Security Risks Airport Access Controls Background Checks and Vetting Physical Security Measures for Airports Physical Security Measures for Aircraft Securing Agricultural Aviation Operations Flight School Security Security Practices for Business and Charter Aviation Vetting and Tracking GA Flights at the U.S. Borders Airspace Restrictions Airspace Restrictions around Washington, DC Security-Related Flight Restrictions Throughout the United States Policy Issues Regarding Airspace Restrictions Index
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- ID: 9781420070293
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