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Alkali-Aggregate Reaction and Structural Damage to Concrete: Engineering Assessment, Repair and Management

Alkali-Aggregate Reaction and Structural Damage to Concrete: Engineering Assessment, Repair and Management

By: Geoffrey E. Blight (author), Mark G. Alexander (author)Hardback

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Description

Since AAR was first identified in 1940, it has been a subject dominated by studies of the mineralogy of AAR-susceptible aggregates, the chemistry of the AAR and related reactions and laboratory tests used to diagnose AAR and predict potential future swelling. Civil and structural engineers have found the literature bewildering and difficult to apply to their immediate requirements of assessing the present and future effects of AAR on the strength, safety and serviceability of plain and reinforced concrete structures. The book discusses methods that can be used for laboratory destructive and in situ non-destructive testing to assess the effects of AAR, and in-service measurements and load-testing to assess the present and future safety of reinforced concrete structures. Methods of repair and rehabilitation and their long-term success are discussed, as are methods of halting or slowing the progress of AAR. At the same time, the fundamentals of AAR are explained in terms intelligible to the civil and structural engineer who is primarily trained in structural mechanics and design, but also needs to have a basic understanding of the AAR process and its effects on concrete.

About Author

Geoffrey Blight completed his Bachelor's and Master's degrees in Civil Engineering at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, and his PhD in Geotechnical Engineering at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, in 1961. The early years of his career were spent at the South African National Building Research Institute, Pretoria, where he was engaged in research on design, operation and safety of mine waste storage facilities, including waste rock dumps and hydraulic fill tailings storage facilities. In 1969 Geoff Blight was appointed to the Chair of Construction Materials in the Department of Civil Engineering at Witwatersrand University. The field of study encompassed geotechnical engineering and concrete technology. In 1978 he was commissioned to study and diagnose the cause of cracking occurring in a series of 15- to 17-year-old reinforced concrete structures supporting the Johannesburg motorway system, and diagnosed the cause as AAR. Since then, he has researched and investigated several cases of deterioration by AAR, and has published widely on the subject. He and his co-author, Mark Alexander, spent a number of years in joint research on AAR and other aspects of the durability of concrete. He was a corresponding member of the committee that produced the British Institution of Structural Engineers' guides on the structural effects of AAR published in 1989 and 1992 and, since 2002, has been a corresponding member of the RILEM* Technical Committees TC 106 and TC 191 - ARP which have been investigating various aspects of AAR.Mark Alexander completed his Bachelor's, Master's and PhD degrees in Civil Engineering at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg and lectured in Construction Materials at Witwatersrand University for several years. In 1992 he was appointed to the Chair of Civil Engineering at the University of Cape Town where he has further developed his interests in concrete durability, including repair and rehabilitation of deteriorated concrete structures. He has published extensively and is active in international scientific circles. He co-authored the book, Aggregates in Concrete published by Taylor and Francis in 2005. He is currently Vice President of RILEM* and is scheduled to assume the RILEM Presidency in 2012. * Reunion Internationale des Laboratoires et Experts des Materiaux.

Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTSAuthor biographiesAcknowledgementsList of symbols and dimensions Chapter 1: Alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) and its effects on concrete - an overview1.1 AAR and its visible characteristics1.2 The chemical characteristics of AAR1.3 Guarding against AAR1.4 Main types of AAR and the appearance of fractures caused by AAR1.5 Chemical mechanisms of AAR1.6 Necessary and sufficient requirements for AAR to occur1.7 What is still to come1.8 References Chapter 2: Diagnostic investigations and tests and their interpretation2.1 Investigation of the cause of cracking in a concrete structure2.2 Petrology of AAR-susceptible minerals and rock types2.3 Assessing aggregates for AAR-potential2.4 Aggregate petrography2.5 References? Chapter 3: Effects of AAR on Engineering Properties of Concrete - Results of Laboratory Determinations3.1 Laboratory specimens and cores taken from structures3.2 The process of cracking3.3 Differences between laboratory specimens and cores taken from AAR-affected structures3.4 The testing of cores and laboratory-prepared cylinders or prisms3.5 The strength of disrupted or disintegrated concrete3.6 Elastic properties, compressive, indirect and direct tensile strengths of AAR-affected concrete3.7 Creep of AAR-damaged concrete under sustained load3.8 The effects on expansion of compressive stress3.9 Fracturing of reinforcing steel in AAR-affected structures3.10 The possibility of bond failure in AAR-affected reinforced concrete structures3.11 Review and summary of conclusions3.12 References Chapter 4: Assessment of risk of structural failure based on results of laboratory or field tests4.1 Introduction, definitions and examples4.2 An acceptable probability of failure4.3 Statistical calculation of the probability of failure4.4 Assessing demand D and capacity C4.5 A simple example of calculating pf4.6 Conclusions on statistical assessment of risk4.7 Full-scale test loading as a means of assessing risk4.8 Instruments used for measurements in laboratory and in situ load testing4.9 Planning, preparing and performing an in situ load test on a structure4.10 "Special" or "once or twice off" test loadings of complete structures4.11 Routine periodic test loading of complete structures4.12 Tests on relatively small components removed from site and tested in laboratory4.13 Review and conclusions4.14 References Chapter 5: Repair and rehabilitation of AAR-affected structures5.1 Types of repair or remedial treatment5.2 Arresting the AAR process - experiments with surface treatments5.3 Restoring design properties by resin injection5.4 Repair by externally applied stressing5.5 Strengthening by glued-on steel plates5.6 Repair by partial demolition and reconstruction5.7 Repair and rehabilitation of concrete highway pavement5.8 Repair or mitigation of effects of AAR in large mass concrete structures5.9 Repair of broken reinforcement in AAR-damaged concrete5.10 Review and conclusions5.11 References? Chapter 6: Epilogue - A check-list of important structural consequences of AAR6.1 AAR is a durability problem that is unlikely to cause structural failure6.2 AAR results in the deterioration of concrete properties6.3 In situ concrete properties can usually be expected to be considerably better than properties measured on cores in a laborator6.4 Compression members are relatively unaffected by AAR6.5 Flexural members need more consideration6.6 The performance of structural concrete pavements6.7 Compressive stresses in AAR-affected concrete6.8 AAR-damaged structures can reach and exceed their design service life

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780415613538
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 250
  • ID: 9780415613538
  • weight: 612
  • ISBN10: 0415613531

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