Covering the latest research in alloy physics together with the underlying basic principles, this comprehensive book provides a sound understanding of the structural changes in metals and alloys -- ranging from plastic deformation, deformation dynamics and ordering kinetics right up to atom jump processes, first principle calculations and simulation techniques. Alongside fundamental topics, such as crystal defects, phase transformations and statistical thermodynamics, the team of international authors treats such hot areas as nano-size effects, interfaces, and spintronics, as well as technical applications of modern alloys, like data storage and recording, and the possibilities offered by materials design.
Wolfgang Pfeiler is professor at the Institute of Materials Physics of the University of Vienna. He is mainly working on investigating the microstructure of alloys, as well as the kinetics of structural changes with a focus on atomic ordering.
Preface. Foreword by Robert W. Cahn. Motto. List of Contributors. 1 Introduction (Wolfgang Pfeiler). 1.1 The Importance of Alloys at the Beginning of the Third Millennium. 1.2 Historical Development. 1.3 Atom Kinetics. 1.4 The Structure of this Book. References. 2 Crystal Structure and Chemical Bonding (Yuri Grin, Ulrich Schwarz, and Walter Steurer). 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Factors Governing Formation, Composition and Crystal Structure of Intermetallic Phases. 2.3 Models of Chemical Bonding in Intermetallic Phases. 2.4 Structure Types of Intermetallic Compounds. 2.5 Quasicrystals. 2.6 Outlook. References. 3 Solidi.cation and Grown-in Defects (Thierry Duffar). 3.1 Introduction: the Solid-Liquid Interface. 3.2 Solidi.cation Structures. 3.3 Defects in Single and Polycrystals. 3.4 Outlook. References. 4 Lattice Statics and Lattice Dynamics (Veronique Pierron-Bohnes and Tarik Mehaddene) 4.1 Introduction: The Binding and Atomic Interaction Energies. 4.2 Elasticity of Crystalline Lattices. 4.3 Lattice Dynamics and Thermal Properties of Alloys. 4.4 Beyond the Harmonic Approximation. 4.5 Experimental Investigation of the Normal Modes of Vibration. 4.6 Phonon Spectra and Migration Energy. 4.7 Outlook. References. 5 Point Defects, Atom Jumps, and Diffusion (Wolfgang Puschl, Hiroshi Numakura, and Wolfgang Pfeiler). 5.1 Point Defects. 5.2 Defect Migration: Microscopic Di.usion. 5.3 Statistical Methods: from Single Jump to Configuration Changes. 5.4 Macroscopic Diffusion. 5.5 Outlook. References. 6 Dislocations and Mechanical Properties (Daniel Caillard). 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Thermally Activated Mechanisms. 6.3 Hardening and Recovery. 6.4 Complex Behavior. 6.5 Outlook. References. 7 Phase Equilibria and Phase Transformations (Brent Fultz and Jeffrey J. Hoyt). 7.1 Alloy Phase Diagrams. 7.2 Kinetics and the Approach to Equilibrium. 7.3 Nucleation and Growth Transformations. 7.4 Spinodal Decomposition. 7.5 Martensitic Transformations. 7.6 Outlook. References. 8 Kinetics in Nonequilibrium Alloys (Pascal Bellon and Georges Martin). 8.1 Relaxation of Nonequilibrium Alloys. 8.2 Driven Alloys. 8.3 Outlook. References. 9 Change of Alloy Properties under Dimensional Restrictions (Hirotaro Mori and Jung-Goo Lee). 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Instrumentation for in-situ Observation of Phase Transformation of Nanometer-Sized Alloy Particles. 9.3 Depression of the Eutectic Temperature and its Relevant Phenomena. 9.4 Solid/Liquid Two-Phase Microstructure. 9.5 Solid Solubility in Nanometer-Sized Alloy Particles. 9.6 Summary and Future Perspectives. References. 10 Statistical Thermodynamics and Model Calculations (Tetsuo Mohri). 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Statistical Thermodynamics on a Discrete Lattice. 10.3 Statistical Thermodynamics on Continuous Media. 10.4 Model Calculations. 10.5 Future Scope and Outlook. Appendix: CALPHAD Free Energy. References. 11 Ab-Initio Methods and Applications (Stefan Muller, Walter Wolf, and Raimund Podloucky). 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 Theoretical Background. 11.3 Applications. 11.4 Outlook. References. 12 Simulation Techniques (Ferdinand Haider, Rafal Kozubski, and T.A. Abinandanan). 12.1 Introduction. 12.2 Molecular Dynamics Simulations. 12.3 Monte Carlo Simulations. 12.4 Phase Field Models. 12.5 Outlook. Appendix. References. 13 High-Resolution Experimental Methods. 13.1 High-Resolution Scattering Methods and Time-Resolved Diffraction (Bogdan Sepiol and Karl F. Ludwig). 13.2 High-Resolution Microscopy (Guido Schmitz and James M. Howe). References. 14 Materials and Process Design. 14.1 Soft and Hard Magnets (Roland Grossinger). 14.2 Invar Alloys (Peter Mohn). 14.3 Magnetic Media (Laurent Ranno). 14.4 Spin Electronics (Spintronics) (Laurent Ranno). 14.5 Phase-Change Media (Takeo Ohta). 14.6 Superconductors (Harald W. Weber). Further Reading. Index.