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Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies for Improved Environmental Performance: Towards Zero Carbon Transportation (Woodhead Publishing Se

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies for Improved Environmental Performance: Towards Zero Carbon Transportation (Woodhead Publishing Se

By: Richard Folkson (editor)Hardback

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Description

Most vehicles run on fossil fuels, and this presents a major emissions problem as demand for fuel continues to increase. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies gives an overview of key developments in advanced fuels and vehicle technologies to improve the energy efficiency and environmental impact of the automotive sector. Part I considers the role of alternative fuels such as electricity, alcohol, and hydrogen fuel cells, as well as advanced additives and oils, in environmentally sustainable transport. Part II explores methods of revising engine and vehicle design to improve environmental performance and fuel economy. It contains chapters on improvements in design, aerodynamics, combustion, and transmission. Finally, Part III outlines developments in electric and hybrid vehicle technologies, and provides an overview of the benefits and limitations of these vehicles in terms of their environmental impact, safety, cost, and design practicalities. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies is a standard reference for professionals, engineers, and researchers in the automotive sector, as well as vehicle manufacturers, fuel system developers, and academics with an interest in this field.

About Author

Richard Folkson is Royal Academy of Engineering Visiting Professor for Innovation and Design and Deputy President of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

Contents

Contributor contact detailsWoodhead Publishing Series in EnergyChapter 1: Introduction Abstract:1.1 Introduction1.2 Technology roadmaps to deliver low carbon targets1.3 Vehicle technology contributions to low carbon targets1.4 Powertrain technology contributions to low carbon targets1.5 Regulatory requirements and consumer trends1.6 Traffic management factors1.7 Global manufacturing and consumer trends1.8 Commercial vehicles and buses1.9 Electrification of transport technology1.10 Current and future trends1.11 Affordability and consumer appeal1.12 Long-term vision: solar energy/hydrogen economy1.13 Conclusion1.14 Sources of further information and advice1.15 Acknowledgements Part I: Alternative fuels, advanced additives and oils to improve environmental performance of vehicles Chapter 2: The role of alternative and renewable liquid fuels in environmentally sustainable transport Abstract:2.1 Introduction: competing fuels and energy carriers2.2 Market penetration of biodiesel2.3 Market penetration of alcohol fuels2.4 Future provision of alternative liquid fuels: the biomass limit2.5 Beyond the biomass limit: sustainable organic fuels for transport (SOFT)2.6 Renewable fuels within an integrated renewable energy system2.7 Conclusions2.8 Acknowledgements2.10 Appendix: abbreviations Chapter 3: Using alternative and renewable liquid fuels to improve the environmental performance of internal combustion engines: key challenges and blending technologies Abstract:3.1 Introduction3.2 The use of biodiesel in internal combustion engines: fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO)3.3 Alcohol fuels: physico-chemical properties3.4 Alcohol fuels for spark-ignition engines: effects on performance and efficiency3.5 Alcohol fuels for spark-ignition engines: pollutant emissions, deposits and lubricant dilution3.6 Alcohol fuels for compression-ignition engines3.7 Vehicle and blending technologies for alternative liquid fuels: flexible-fuel vehicles3.8 Vehicle and blending technologies for alternative liquid fuels: ethanol-gasoline and methanol-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles3.9 Vehicle and blending technologies for alternative liquid fuels: tri-flex-fuel vehicles and iso-stoichiometric ternary blends3.10 Conclusions3.11 Acknowledgements3.13 Appendix: abbreviations Chapter 4: Alternative and renewable gaseous fuels to improve vehicle environmental performance Abstract:4.1 Introduction4.2 Fossil natural gas4.3 Fossil natural gas production, transmission and distribution4.4 Natural gas engines and vehicles4.5 Biomethane/biogas4.6 Biogas production, distribution and storage4.7 Liquid petroleum gas (LPG)4.8 LPG production, distribution, storage and use in vehicles4.9 Hydrogen4.10 Hydrogen production, distribution, storage and use in vehicles4.11 Life-cycle analysis of alternative gaseous fuels4.12 Future trends Chapter 5: Electricity and hydrogen as energy vectors for transportation vehicles Abstract:5.1 Introduction5.2 Overview of hydrogen production5.3 Overview of electricity production5.4 Hydrogen storage and transportation5.5 Conclusions Chapter 6: Advanced engine oils to improve the performance of modern internal combustion engines Abstract:6.1 Introduction6.2 The role of the lubricant in a modern internal combustion engine6.3 The composition of a typical modern engine lubricant6.4 Diesel engine lubricant challenges6.5 Gasoline engine lubrication challenges6.6 Industry and original equipment manufacturer (OEM) specifications for engine oils6.7 Lubricating modern engines in developing markets6.8 Future engine oil evolution6.9 Conclusions6.10 Acknowledgements6.11 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 7: Advanced fuel additives for modern internal combustion engines Abstract:7.1 Introduction7.2 Additive types and their impact on conventional and advanced fuels7.3 Impacts of additives on combustion characteristics7.4 Diesel performance and deposit control additives7.5 Gasoline performance and deposit control additives7.6 Conclusions and future trends7.7 Sources of further information and advice Part II: Improving engine and vehicle design Chapter 8: Internal combustion engine cycles and concepts Abstract:8.1 Introduction8.2 Ideal engine operation cycles8.3 Alternative engine operating cycles8.4 Comparison of engine cycle performance8.5 Advantages and limitations of internal combustion engines8.6 Conclusions and future trends8.7 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 9: Improving the environmental performance of heavy-duty vehicles and engines: key issues and system design approaches Abstract:9.1 Introduction: classifying engine and vehicle types9.2 The use of alternative fuels to improve environmental performance9.3 Electric, hydraulic, and flywheel hybrid powertrains for improved fuel economy9.4 Vehicle emissions and fuel economy regulations9.5 Improving vehicle design to meet environmental regulations9.6 Improving engine design to meet environmental regulations9.7 Developments in light-duty diesel engine technologies9.8 A system design approach to address challenges in advanced engine and vehicle technologies9.9 Summary of next-generation technologies for heavy-duty vehicles9.11 Appendix: units and unit conversion Chapter 10: Improving the environmental performance of heavyduty vehicles and engines: particular technologies Abstract:10.1 Introduction10.2 Fuel injection systems and engine performance10.3 Conventional combustion technologies and engine performance10.4 Advanced low-temperature combustion systems10.5 Engine air flow and turbocharging systems10.6 Engine downsizing, down-speeding, and down-breathing10.7 Mechanical and electrical supercharging systems for improved emissions control and performance10.8 Turbocompounding to improve engine performance10.9 Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems10.10 Improving conventional valvetrains and the use of variable valve actuation (VVA)10.11 Heavy-duty diesel engine cooling and thermal management systems10.12 Aftertreatment technologies for emissions control10.13 Waste heat recovery (WHR) systems10.14 Engine mechanical friction reduction technologies10.15 Electronic controls and on-board diagnostic (OBD) systems to optimize engine performance10.16 Development of natural gas engines10.17 Future trends10.19 Appendix: units and unit conversion Chapter 11: Advanced and conventional internal combustion engine materials Abstract:11.1 Introduction11.2 Advanced internal combustion (IC) engine materials: compact graphite iron (CGI)11.3 Graphite/carbon and carbon/carbon fibre-reinforced polymer composites (CFRPs)11.4 Advanced polymers: polyamides for manufacturing intake manifolds11.5 Advanced alloys and ceramics for manufacturing valves and other components11.6 Materials for particular components in IC engines Chapter 12: Advanced transmission technologies to improve vehicle performance Abstract:12.1 Introduction12.2 Manual transmission: six-speed front-wheel-drive SG6-31012.3 Dual-clutch transmission: seven-speed front-wheel-drive 7G-DCT12.4 Automatic transmission: seven-speed 7G-Tronic Plus12.5 Continuously variable transmission: front-wheel-drive CVT AUTOTRONIC12.6 P2 hybrid transmission12.7 Two-mode hybrid transmission advanced hybrid system-cars (AHS-C)12.8 Automated commercial vehicle transmission: 16-speed G260-16 Chapter 13: Sustainable design and manufacture of lightweight vehicle structures Abstract:13.1 Introduction13.2 The value of mass reduction13.3 General challenges and opportunities13.4 Possible architectures of the next-generation vehicle13.5 Specific lightweighting technologies13.6 Future trends13.7 Acknowledgements Chapter 14: Improving vehicle rolling resistance and aerodynamics Abstract:14.1 Introduction14.2 Overview of vehicle aerodynamics14.3 Rolling resistance in vehicles14.4 Advanced vehicle design for drag reduction14.5 Advanced tire design and materials14.6 Conclusions and future trends Chapter 15: Mechanical and electrical flywheel hybrid technology to store energy in vehicles Abstract:15.1 Introduction15.2 The development of flywheel technology15.3 Types and properties of flywheels15.4 Transmissions for flywheels15.5 Performance evaluation of flywheel hybrid vehicles15.6 Technical challenges in flywheel development15.7 Conclusions and future trends Chapter 16: Hydraulic and pneumatic hybrid powertrains for improved fuel economy in vehicles Abstract:16.1 Introduction16.2 Hydraulic hybrid principle of operation and system architectures16.3 Hydraulic component design and modeling16.4 Integrated hydraulic hybrid vehicle simulation16.5 Design and control of hydraulic hybrid powertrains16.6 Examples of practical applications16.7 Pneumatic hybrids Chapter 17: Integration and performance of regenerative braking and energy recovery technologies in vehicles Abstract:17.1 Introduction17.2 Types and properties of regenerative braking and energy recovery17.3 Hybridisation with energy recovery: design and performance issues17.4 Design integration and operational optimisation17.5 Advantages and limitations of regenerative braking17.6 Conclusions and future trends Part III: Electric/hybrid vehicle technologies Chapter 18: Hybrid drive train technologies for vehicles Abstract:18.1 Introduction18.2 Hybrid vehicle configurations and classification18.3 The challenges of hybrid vehicle design18.4 Solutions to the design problem18.5 Conclusion Chapter 19: Battery technology for CO2 reduction Abstract:19.1 Introduction19.2 CO2 reduction opportunities of using batteries19.3 Battery functionality and chemistries for vehicle applications19.4 Lithium ion cells19.5 High voltage battery pack design19.6 Battery management systems19.7 Future trends19.8 Conclusions Chapter 20: Conventional fuel/hybrid electric vehicles Abstract:20.1 Introduction20.2 Basic components of a hybrid electric vehicle system20.3 Architectures of hybrid electric drive trains20.4 Series hybrid electric drive trains (electrical coupling)20.5 Parallel hybrid electric drive trains (mechanical coupling)20.6 Series-parallel hybrid electric drive trains (electric and mechanical coupling) and plug-in hybrids20.7 Control and performance20.8 Future trends Chapter 21: Pure electric vehicles Abstract:21.1 Introduction21.2 System configurations21.3 Electric propulsion21.4 Energy storage and management21.5 Charging infrastructure21.6 Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology21.7 Benefits and limitations of EVs21.8 Conclusions and future trends21.9 Acknowledgements Chapter 22: Fuel-cell (hydrogen) electric hybrid vehicles Abstract:22.1 Introduction22.2 Energy storage devices (ESDs) for the transport sector22.3 Batteries22.4 Hydrogen and fuel cells22.5 Electrochemical capacitors (ECs)22.6 Current status of low-carbon vehicle technologies22.7 Battery electric vehicles (BEVs)22.8 Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs)22.9 Technical prospects and barriers22.10 Improving the safety of hydrogen-powered vehicles22.11 Conclusions22.12 Acknowledgements22.14 Appendix: abbreviations Index

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780857095220
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 784
  • ID: 9780857095220
  • weight: 1290
  • ISBN10: 0857095226

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