This work brings together in one place primary material dealing with the issue of American Catholics and slavery. The anthology is organized in three parts. Each part is preceded by an introduction offering an overview of the section and each of the one hundred documents. Part I contains documents which established the Roman Catholic position on the morality of slave and slave-holding. Part II focuses on the context of the United States in the 18th and 19th centuries in which the Roman church existed. Part III presents documents generated by Catholics themselves specifically relating to slavery. Contents: Introduction; PART ONE: THE CATHOLIC TRADITION ON SLAVERY; The Hebrew Scriptures; The New Testament: The Letters of Paul; Church Fathers and Theologians; Church Councils; A Slave Code of a Catholic King; Papal Encyclicals; PART TWO: THE CONTEXT: 18TH AND 19TH CENTURY AMERICA; An Overview; Slavery: The Socio-Political Setting; Abolition and Abolitionists: Uniquely a Minority Protestant View; American Colonization Society; Papal Statements on the Evils of the Age: A Catholic World View; Nativism and Anti-Catholicism: Attack and Response; Friendly Observations of Catholics by Southerners; PART THREE: CATHOLICS ON SLAVERY: 1789-1866; Observers of Catholics and Slavery; The Catholic Press on the Subject of Slavery; The Work of Religious Among the Blacks; Catholics as Slave Buyers, Sellers and Masters; Statements of Former Slaves of Catholics; Baptism Registers; Statements of Catholic Priests; Theologizing on Slavery; Bishops' Pastoral Letters on Slavery; Personal Letters on Slavery; Personal Letters of Catholic Bishops; A Civil War Diary; The Second Plenary Council of Baltimore; Notes; Index.