Human health issues relating to amino acids are extremely broad and include metabolic disorders of amino acid metabolism as well as their presence in food and use as supplements. This book covers the biochemistry of amino acid metabolism in the context of health and disease. It discusses their use as food supplements, in clinical therapy and nutritional support and focuses on major recent developments, highlighting new areas of research that will be needed to sustain further interest in the field. It is suitable researchers and students in human nutrition and food science.
PART I: ENZYMES AND METABOLISM; 1. Glutamate Dehydrogenase; 2. Aminotransferases; 3. Arginase; 4. Bypassing the Endothelial L-Arginine-Nitric-Oxide Pathway: Effects of Dietary Nitrite and Nitrate on Cardiovascular Function; 5. Histidine Decarboxylase; 6. Glutamate Decarboxylase; 7. Glutaminase; 8. D-Serine and Serine Racemase in Retina; 9. Tryptophan Hydroxylase; 10. Methionine Metabolism; PART II: DYNAMICS; 11. Amino Acid Transport Across Each Side of the Blood-Brain Barrier; 12. Inter-Organ Fluxes of Amino Acids; 13. Cellular Adaptation to Amino Acid Availability: Mechanisms Involved in the Regulation of Gene Expression; PART III. NUTRITION; 14. Endogenous Amino Acids at the Terminal Ileum of the Adult Human; 15. Metabolic Availability of Amino Acids in Food Proteins: New Methodology; 16. Amino Acid Requirements: Quantitative Estimates; 17. Amino Acid Supplements and Muscular Performance; 18. Amino Acids in Clinical and Nutritional Support: Glutamine in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy; 19. Adverse Effects; 20. The Umami Taste of Glutamate; PART IV: HEALTH; 21. Homocysteine Status: Factors Affecting and Health Risks; 22. Modified Amino Acid-Based Molecules: Accumulation and Health Implications; 23. Phenylketonuria: Newborn Identification Through to Adulthood; 24. Principles of Rapid Tryptophan Depletion and its use in Research on Neuropsychiatric Disorders; 25. Excitatory Amino Acids in Neurological and Neurodegenerative Disorders; 26. Efficacy of L-DOPA Therapy in Parkinson's Disease; 27. Amino Acid Profiles for Diagnostic Applications; PART V: CONCLUSIONS; 28. Emergence of a New Momentum.
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