Asymmetrical power relationships are found throughout Pakistan's Punjabi and Pukhtun communities. These relationships must be examined as manifestations of cultural continuity rather than as separate structures. The various cultures of Pakistan display certain common cultural features which suggest a re-examination of past analytical divisions of tribe and peasant societies. This book looks at the ways power is expressed, accumulated and maintained in three social contexts: kinship, caste, and political relationships. These are embedded within a collection of 'hybridising' cultures. Socialisation within kin groups provides the building blocks for Pakistani asymmetrical relationships, which may be understood as a form of patronage. As these social building blocks are transferred to non-kin contexts, the patron/client aspects are more easily identified and studied. State politics and religion are examined for the ways in which these patron/client roles are enacted on much larger scales but remain embedded within the cultural values underpinning those roles.
Stephen Lyon is currently lecturer in social anthropology at the University of Durham. He has lived and worked in Pakistan over two decades for approximately three years and has conducted anthropological research related to social organization as well as agricultural development.
Preface by Professor Hastings Donnan; 1. Power, Patronage and 'hybridsation': power; crossroads cultures - areas of 'hybridisation'; the Middle East and the Mediterranean; important concepts from the anthropology of India; 2. The Village, Region and Methods: country; Village and region; district and regional identity; 3. A Selected Anthropology of Pakistan: nature of political leadership; caste; class; agnatic rivalry and izzat; 4. Family Relations: family defined; life-cycle; patronage within the family; 5. Labour Relations: home servants; sharecroppers; drivers, carpenters, seasonal field hands and others; 6. Caste and Tribe as Vertical Organisations for Patronage: caste, tribe, qaum, zat, rishtidar, biraderi, sharika; caste and qaum in the village; qaum history in the village; qaum history and organization; Gujars; K'hattars; what qaum means in the village; qaum-ism organizations; qaum in government politics; 7. Symbolic Violence and Rivalry between 'Equals': what is a deg?; symbolic violence; indirect symbolic violence; 8. Local Arbitration and Conflict Deferment: conflict resolution; legal systems, case studies; arbitration is not about resolution; 9. State Politics: landlords in state political processes; patrons and clients in the political process; 10. Religion and Patronage: the economy of pir worship; Maulvis - the case ration-legal and religious authority; 11. Conclusion: relationships of asymmetrical exchange; impact on anthropological theory and an anthropology of Pakistan; implications for society and development - patronage and instability; Bibliography; Additional reading; Subject and Author indices