'Mining exploration investment in the Latin American and Caribbean region has increased 130 percent in the last five years, a figure which increases to 500 percent, if Chile is excluded.' Governments have revamped mining legislation to enable private investment while becoming more sensitive to environmental factors. In light of this legislation, this report examines the environmental effects of artisanal, small, and medium mines in three Latin American Countries: Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. Four of the most important elements to be considered are: * The age of the mine * Management of tailings * The heterogeneity of the artisanal and small mine sectors * The increasing need to take cultural considerations into account in the decision making process. The paper contains results of the studies on the various mining sectors, strategy and policy recommendations, and country study summaries.