An Essential Guide to Electronic Material Surfaces and Interfaces

An Essential Guide to Electronic Material Surfaces and Interfaces

By: Leonard J. Brillson (author)Hardback

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An Essential Guide to Electronic Material Surfaces and Interfaces is a streamlined yet comprehensive introduction that covers the basic physical properties of electronic materials, the experimental techniques used to measure them, and the theoretical methods used to understand, predict, and design them. Starting with the fundamental electronic properties of semiconductors and electrical measurements of semiconductor interfaces, this text introduces students to the importance of characterizing and controlling macroscopic electrical properties by atomic-scale techniques. The chapters that follow present the full range of surface and interface techniques now being used to characterize electronic, optical, chemical, and structural properties of electronic materials, including semiconductors, insulators, nanostructures, and organics. The essential physics and chemistry underlying each technique is described in sufficient depth for students to master the fundamental principles, with numerous examples to illustrate the strengths and limitations for specific applications. As well as references to the most authoritative sources for broader discussions, the text includes internet links to additional examples, mathematical derivations, tables, and literature references for the advanced student, as well as professionals in these fields. This textbook fills a gap in the existing literature for an entry-level course that provides the physical properties, experimental techniques, and theoretical methods essential for students and professionals to understand and participate in solid-state electronics, physics, and materials science research. An Essential Guide to Electronic Material Surfaces and Interfaces is an introductory-to-intermediate level textbook suitable for students of physics, electrical engineering, materials science, and other disciplines. It is essential reading for any student or professional engaged in surface and interface research, semiconductor processing, or electronic device design.

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Preface Chapter 1 Why Surfaces and Interfaces of Electronic Materials 1.1 The Impact of Electronic Materials 1.2 Surfaces and Interface Importance as Electronics Shrink 1.3 Historical Background 1.3.1 Contact Electrification and the Development of Solid State Concepts 1.3.2 Crystal Growth and Refinement 1.3.3 Transistor Development and the Birth of Semiconductor Devices 1.3.4 Surface Science and Microelectronics 1.4 Next Generation Electronics 1.5 Problems References Chapter 2 Semiconductor Electronic and Optical Properties 2.1 The Semiconductor Band Gap 2.2 The Fermi Level and Energy Band Parameters 2.3 Band Bending at Semiconductor Surfaces and Interfaces 2.4 Surfaces and Interfaces in Electronic Devices 2.5 Effects of Localized States: Traps, Dipoles, and Barriers 2.6 Summary 2.7 Problems References Chapter 3 Electrical Measurements of Surfaces and Interfaces 3.1 Sheet Resistance and Contact Resistivity 3.2 Contact Measurements: Schottky Barrier Overview 3.2.1 Ideal Schottky Barriers 3.2.2 Real Schottky Barriers: Role of Interface States 3.2.3 Schottky Barrier Measurements Current-Voltage Technique Capacitance-Voltage Technique Internal Photoemission Technique 3.2.4 Schottky Barrier Conclusions 3.3 Heterojunction Band Offsets: Electrical Measurements 3.4 Summary 3.5 Problems References Chapter 4 Localized States at Surfaces and Interfaces 4.1 Interface state models 4.2 Intrinsic Surface States 4.2.1 Experimental Approaches 4.2.2 Theoretical Approaches 4.2.3 Key Intrinsic Surface State Results 4.3 Extrinsic Surface States 4.4 The Solid State Interface: Changing Perspectives 4.5 Problems References Chapter 5 Ultrahigh vacuum technology 5.1 Ultrahigh Vacuum Vessels 5.1.1 Ultrahigh vacuum pressures 5.1.2 Stainless steel UHV chambers 5.2 Pumps 5.3 Manipulators 5.4 Gauges 5.5 Residual Gas Analysis 5.6 Deposition Sources 5.7 Deposition Monitors 5.8 Summary 5.9 Problems References Chapter 6 Surface and Interface Analysis 6.1 Surface and Interface Techniques 6.2 Excited Electron Spectroscopies 6.3 Principles of Surface Sensitivity 6.4 Multi-technique UHV Chambers 6.5 Summary 6.6 Problems References Chapter 7 Surface and Interface Spectroscopies 7.1 Photoemission Spectroscopy 7.1.1 The Photoelectric Effect 7.1.2 Energy Distribution Curves 7.1.3 Atomic Orbital Binding Energies 7.1.4 Photoionization Cross Sections 7.1.5 Principles of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Chemical Species Identification and Chemical Shifts Depth-Dependent Measurements Band Bending 7.1.6 Advanced Surface and Interface Techniques Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy 7.1.7 Excitation Sources: X-Ray, Ultraviolet, and Synchrotron 7.1.8 Electron Energy Analyzers 7.1.9 Photoemission Spectroscopy Summary 7.2 Auger Electron Spectroscopy 7.2.1 Auger versus X-Ray Transition Probabilities 7.2.2 Auger Electron Energies 7.2.3 Quantitative AES Analysis 7.2.4 Auger Electron Spectroscopy Summary 7.3 Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy 7.3.1 Dielectric Response Theory 7.3.2 Surface Phonon Scattering 7.3.3 Plasmon Scattering 7.3.4 Interface Electronic Transitions 7.3.5 Transmission Electron Microscopy Energy Loss Spectroscopy 7.3.6 Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy Summary 7.4 Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry 7.4.1 Theory of Rutherford Backscattering 7.4.2 Rutherford Backscattering Experiment 7.4.3 RBS Experimental Spectra 7.4.4 RBS Interface Studies 7.4.5 Channeling and Blocking 7.4.6 Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy Summary 7.5 Surface and Interface Technique Summary 7.6 Problems References Chapter 8 Dynamical Depth-Dependent Analysis and Imaging 8.1 Ion Beam-Induced Surface Ablation 8.2 Auger Electron Spectroscopy 8.3 X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy 8.4 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry 8.4.1 SIMS Principles 8.4.2 SIMS Equipment 8.4.3 Secondary Ion Yields 8.4.4 Organic and Biological Species 8.4.5 SIMS Summary 8.5 Spectroscopy Imaging 8.6 Depth-Resolved and Imaging Summary 8.7 Problems References Chapter 9 Electron Beam Diffraction and Microscopy of Atomic-Scale Geometrical Structure 9.1 Low Energy Electron Diffraction Principles 9.1.1 Low-Energy Electron Diffraction Techniques 9.1.2 LEED Equipment 9.1.3 LEED Kinematics 9.1.4 LEED Reconstructions, Surface Lattices, and Superstructures 9.1.5 Representative Semiconductor Reconstructions 9.2 Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction 9.2.1 Principles of RHEED 9.2.2 Coherence Length 9.2.3 RHEED Oscillations 9.3 Scanning Electron Microscopy 9.3.1 Scanning Auger Microscopy 9.3.2 Photoelectron Microscopy 9.4 Transmission Electron Microscopy 9.4.1 Atomic Imaging: Z-Contrast 9.4.2 Surface Atomic Geometry 9.4.3 Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy 9.5 Electron Beam Diffraction and Microscopy Summary 9.6 Problems References Chapter 10 Scanning Probe Techniques 10.1 Atomic Force Microscopy 10.1.1 Non-Contact Mode AFM 10.1.2 Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy 10.1.3 Contact Mode AFM 10.2 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy 10.2.1 STM Overview 10.2.2 Tunneling Theory 10.2.3 Surface Atomic Structure 10.3 Ballistic Electron Energy Microscopy 10.4 Atomic Positioning 10.5 Summary 10.6 Problems References Chapter 11 Optical Spectroscopies 11.1 Overview 11.2 Optical Absorption 11.3 Modulation Techniques 11.4 Multiple Surface Interaction Techniques 11.5 Spectroscopic Ellipsometry 11.6 Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy 11.7 Surface Photoconductivity 11.8 Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy 11.8.1 Transient Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy 11.9 Photoluminescence Spectroscopy 11.10 Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy 11.10.1 Overview 11.10.2 Theory 11.10.3 Semiconductor Ionization Energies 11.10.4 Universal Range-Energy Relations 11.10.5 Monte Carlo Simulations 11.10.6 Depth-Resolved Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy 11.10.7 Spatially-Resolved Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy and Imaging 11.11 Summary 11.12 Problems References Chapter 12 Electronic Material Surfaces 12.1 Geometric Structure 12.1.1 Surface Relaxation and Reconstruction 12.1.2 Extended Geometric Structure 12.2 Chemical Structure 12.2.1 Crystal Growth 12.2.2 Etching 12.2.3 Adsorbates 12.2.4 Epitaxical Overlayers 12.2.5 Growth Modes 12.2.6 Interface Chemical Reaction 12.3 Electronic Structure 12.3.1 Physisorption 12.3.2 Chemisorption 12.3.3 Surface Dipoles 12.4 Summary 12.5 Problems References Chapter 13 Surface Electronic Applications 13.1 Charge Transfer and Band Bending 13.1.1 Sheet Conductance 13.1.2 Transient Effects 13.2 Oxide Gas Sensors 13.3 Granular Gas Sensors 13.4 Nanowire Sensors 13.5 Chemical and Biosensors 13.5.1 Sensor Sensitivity 13.5.2 Sensor Selectivity 13.6 Surface Electronic Temperature, Pressure, and Mass Sensors 13.7 Summary 13.8 Problems References Chapter 14 Semiconductor Heterojunctions 14.1 Geometrical Structure 14.1.1 Epitaxial Growth 14.1.2 Lattice Matching Alloy Composition and Lattice Match Lattice Mismatched Interfaces Dislocation and Strain 14.1.3 Two-Dimensional Electron Gas Heterojunctions 14.1.4 Strained Layer Superlattices Superlattice Energy Bands Strain-Induced Polarization 14.2 Chemical Structure 14.2.1 Interdiffusion 14.2.2 Chemical Reactions 14.2.3 Template Overlayers MonolayerPassivation and Surfactants Orientation Dependence 14.3 Electronic Structure 14.3.1 Heterojunction Band Offsets 14.3.2 Band Offset Measurements Electrical and Optical Techniques Scanned Probe Techniques Photoemission Spectroscopy Techniques 14.3.3 Inorganic Heterojunction Results 14.3.4 Organic Heterojunctions 14.3.5 Heterojunction Band Offset Theories Charge Neutrality Levels Local Bond Approaches 14.3.6 Interface Effects on Band Offsets Growth Sequence Crystallographic Orientation Interface Bonding 14.3.7 Theoretical Methods First Principles Calculations Mathematical Approach Heterovalent Interfaces Polarity and Interfacial Bonding Dependence 14.3.8 Band Offset Engineering Atomic Interlayers Local Nonstoichiometry 14.4 Conclusions 14.5 Problems References Chapter 15 Metal-Semiconductor Interfaces 15.1 Overview 15.2 Metal-Semiconductor Interface Dipoles 15.3 Interface States 15.3.1 Localized States 15.3.2 Metal-Induced Gap States 15.3.3 Charge Transfer, Electronegativity, and Defects 15.3.4 Imperfections, Impurities, and Native Defects 15.3.5 Chemisorption, Interface Reaction, and Interfacial Phases 15.3.6 Organic Semiconductor-Metal Interfaces 15.4 Self-Consistent Electrostatic Calculations 15.5 Experimental Schottky Barriers 15.5.1 Metals on Si and Ge Clean Cleaved Si Etched and Oxidized Si 15.5.2 Metals on III-V Compound Semiconductors GaAs(110) Pinned Surfaces Oxidized GaAs(110) Surfaces InP(110) Unpinned Schottky Barriers GaN Schottky Barriers Other III-V Binary and Ternary Semiconductors 15.5.3 Metals on II-VI Compound Semiconductors ZnO Schottky Barriers Effect of Native Defects Effect of Polarity 15.5.4 Other Compound Semiconductors 15.5.5 Compound Semiconductor Summary 15.6 Interface Barrier Height Engineering 15.6.1 Macroscopic Methods 15.6.2 Defect Formation 15.6.3 Thermally-Induced Phase Formation 15.6.4 Interdiffused Ohmic Contacts 15.7 Atomic-Scale Control 15.7.1 Reactive Metal Interlayers 15.7.2 Molecular Buffer Layers 15.7.3 Semiconductor Interlayers 15.7.4 Wet Chemical Treatments Photochemical Washing Inorganic Sulfides, Thermal Oxides, and Hydrogen 15.7.5 Crystal Growth Stoichiometry and Defect Control Vicinality Metal Epitaxy and Strain 15.8 Summary 15.9 Problems References Chapter 16 Next Generation Surfaces and Interfaces 16.1 Current Status 16.2 Current Device Challenges 16.3 Emerging Directions 16.3.1 High-K Dielectrics 16.3.2 Complex Oxides 16.3.3 Spintronics and Topological Insulators 16.3.4 Nanostructures 16.3.5 Two-Dimensional Materials 16.3.6 Quantum-Scale Interfaces 16.4 The Essential Guide Conclusions References Appendices Appendix.1. Glossary of Commonly Used Symbols Appendix.2. Table of Acronyms Appendix.3. Physical Constants and Conversion Factors Appendix.4. Table of Semiconductor Properties Index

Product Details

  • publication date: 15/07/2016
  • ISBN13: 9781119027119
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 320
  • ID: 9781119027119
  • weight: 638
  • ISBN10: 111902711X

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