An Introduction to Astronomy and Astrophysics

An Introduction to Astronomy and Astrophysics

By: Pankaj Jain (author)Hardback

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Astronomy is the field of science devoted to the study of astronomical objects, such as stars, galaxies, and nebulae. Astronomers have gathered a wealth of knowledge about the universe through hundreds of years of painstaking observations. These observations are interpreted by the use of physical and chemical laws familiar to mankind. These interpretations supply information about the nature of these astronomical objects, allowing for the deduction of their surface and interior conditions. The science associated with these interpretations is called astrophysics. An Introduction to Astronomy and Astrophysics offers a comprehensive introduction to astronomy and astrophysics, complete with illustrative examples and illuminating homework problems. Requiring a familiarity with basic physics and mathematics, this undergraduate-level textbook: * Addresses key physics concepts relevant to stellar observations, including radiation, electromagnetic spectrum, photometry, continuous and discrete spectrum, and spectral lines * Describes instruments used for astronomical observations as well as how the radiation received is characterized and interpreted to determine the properties of stars * Examines the structure of stars, the basic equations which explain stars in equilibrium, and the fusion reactions occurring in stellar cores * Discusses the evolution of stars, the solar system, the dynamics of galaxies, and the fundamentals of modern cosmology * Explores the universe at high redshifts, where it is dominated by objects such as active galaxies Solutions manual and figure slides available with qualifying course adoption An Introduction to Astronomy and Astrophysics teaches students how to interpret the night sky, providing them with a critical understanding of the stars and other heavenly bodies.

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About Author

Pankaj Jain obtained his doctoral degree from Syracuse University, New York, USA. He subsequently carried out postdoctoral research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA; West Virginia University, Morgantown, USA; University of Kansas, Lawrence, USA; and University of Oklahoma, Norman, USA. Dr. Jain is currently a professor in the Physics Department at Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He is a theoretical physicist, whose chief interests are in high energy physics and cosmology. Presently, he is working on the models of dark energy and dark matter, cosmic microwave background radiation, observational tests of the cosmological principle, fundamental symmetries of nature, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, and strong interactions.


Introduction Overview Scales and Dimensions Night Sky Constellations Earth, Sun, and the Solar System Retrograde Motion of Planets Sidereal Time Astronomical Catalogs and Software Observations Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Spectrum Telescopes Refractor Telescope Reflecting Telescope Observations at Visible Frequencies Theoretical Limit on Resolution Seeing Mounting of Telescope Equatorial Mount Azimuthal Mount Interferometer Observations at Other Wavelengths Astrometry Coordinate Systems The Horizontal System Equatorial Coordinate System Ecliptic System Galactic Coordinate System Supergalactic Coordinate System Space Velocity and Proper Motion of Stars Doppler Effect Parallax Aberration Coordinate Transformations Transformation between Equatorial and Ecliptic Coordinate Systems Precession of Equinoxes Equatorial Mounting of a Telescope Photometry Introduction Flux Density and Intensity Blackbody Radiation Energy Density in an Isotropic Radiation Field Magnitude Scale Apparent Magnitude Absolute Magnitude The Color Index Bolometric Magnitude Stellar Temperatures Effective Temperature Color Temperature Appendix: Solid Angle Gravitation and Kepler's Laws Two-Body Problem Application to Solar System Virial Theorem Tidal Forces and Roche Limit Stars, Stellar Spectra, and Classification Introduction Stellar Spectra Harvard Classification of Stellar Spectra Saha Equation Derivation of the Saha Equation Number of States of a Free Particle in a Box HR Diagram Star Clusters and Associations Distance and Age Determination of Clusters using Color-Magnitude Diagram Radiation from Astronomical Sources Continuous Spectra Synchrotron Radiation Bremsstrahlung Compton Scattering Bound-Free Transitions Absorption and Emission Line Spectrum Radial Velocity due to Doppler Effect Causes of Finite Width of Spectral Lines Molecular Band Spectra Extinction Extinction Coefficient Color Excess Stellar Structure Pressure Gradient Mass Distribution Energy Production Temperature Gradient Radiative Transport Convective Transport Boundary Conditions Rosseland Mean Opacity Equation of State Ideal Gas Law Stellar Energy Sources Appendix: Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution Stellar Nuclear Reactions Fundamental Interactions Fundamental Particles A Brief Introduction to Neutrinos PP Chain Nuclear Reaction Rate Nuclear Reaction Rate: Derivation Nuclear Cross-Section Estimating the Nuclear Reaction Rate Energy Released in Nuclear Reactions Standard Solar Model Star Formation and Stellar Evolution Early Stage of Star Formation Fragmentation Evolution on the Main Sequence Degenerate Free Electron Gas Evolution beyond the Main Sequence Population I and II Stars White Dwarfs Neutron Star Black Holes Supernova The Sun Solar Atmosphere Photosphere Chromosphere Corona Dynamo Mechanism for Magnetic Field Enhancement Sunspots and the Solar Cycle Some Transient Phenomena The Solar System Orbital Properties of Planets Retrograde Motion of Planets Albedo and Temperature of Planets Terrestrial Planets: Interior Structure Jovian Planets The Moon Eclipses and Occultations Why Did Pluto Lose Its Planetship? Formation of the Solar System Binary Stars Kinematics of a Binary Star System Classification of Binary Stars Mass Determination Mass Transfer in Binary Systems The Milky Way The Distance Ladder Distribution of Matter in the Milky Way Differential Rotation of the Milky Way Mapping the Galactic Disk with Radio Waves Formation of the Spiral Arms Galaxies Elliptical Galaxies Spiral Galaxies Evidence for Dark Matter Galaxy Clusters Cosmology Euclidean Space Curved Space Minkowski Space-Time Big Bang Cosmology Cosmological Redshift and Hubble's Law FRW Line Element Matter and Radiation Cosmological Evolution Equations Accelerating Universe and Dark Energy The Early Universe Primordial Nucleosynthesis Recombination Structure Formation Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) Active Galaxies Introduction Active Galactic Nuclei: Some Basic Properties Size of AGNs Luminosity Superluminal Motion Classification of Active Galaxies Seyfert Galaxies Radio Galaxies Quasars Blazars Unified Description of AGNs Appendix: Fundamental Constants and Conversion of Units Index

Product Details

  • publication date: 08/04/2015
  • ISBN13: 9781439885901
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 365
  • ID: 9781439885901
  • weight: 635
  • ISBN10: 1439885907

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