An Introduction to Geological Structures and Maps is a concise and accessible textbook providing simple structural terminology and map problems which introduce geological structures. It is a perfect introduction to mapping for students of geology, engineering geology and civil engineering.
Each topic is explained and illustrated by figures, and exercises follow on successive maps. If students are unable to complete an exercise, they can read on to obtain more specific instructions on how theory may be used to solve the problem. An appendix at the end of the book provides the solutions.
This new, eighth edition contains simplified introductory matter to make the subject as easy to grasp as possible. Colour photographs illustrating geological structures bring the subject to life and a new map from the British Geological Survey illustrates a real area. There is more on outcrop patterns, which will help students to think in 3D, and on structures and the relationship of topography to geological structure. Cliff sections have been added to reinforce the concept of apparent dip. The section on planetary geology has been more closely tied to igneous geology to aid understanding of the connection between the two. Finally, a new map on economic geology has been added for the benefit of engineering students.
A geological glossary helps students to understand and memorise key terms and a new, colourful, text design enlivens the appearance of this popular book.
Dr George M. Bennison, Chartered Geologist, formerly Senior Lecturer in Geology, University of Birmingham, UK Dr Paul A. Olver, Chartered Geologist, formerly Lifelong Learning Development Officer, Herefordshire Council, UK Dr Keith A. Moseley, Head of Physics and Geology, Monmouth School, UK
List of Plates Preface to the current edition Preface to previous editions Key to maps Chapter 1 Strata - the ground rules Chapter 2 Horizontal strata Contours Horizontal and vertical strata in the landscape Geological maps Chapter 3 Dipping strata Structure contours (strike lines) Construction of structure contours True and apparent dip Calculation of the thickness of a bed Width of outcrop Inliers and outliers Exercises using geological survey maps Chapter 4 Three-point problems Construction of structure contours Depth in boreholes Insertion of outcrops Chapter 5 Unconformities Overstep Overlap Sub-unconformity outcrops Exercises using geological maps Chapter 6 Folding Anticlines and synclines Asymmetrical folds Way-up criteria Similar and concentric folding Two possible directions of strike Exercise on published geological survey map Chapter 7 Map solution without structure contours 1 Chapter 8 Faults Normal and reversed faults The effects of faulting on outcrops Classification of faults Calculation of the throw of a fault Faults and economic calculations Wrench or tear faults Pre- and post-unconformity faulting Structural inliers and outliers Posthumous faulting Isopachytes Exercises on published geological survey maps Chapter 9 Map solution without structure contours 2 Chapter 10 More folds and faulted folds Plunging folds Calculation of the amount of plunge The effects of faulting on fold structures Displacement of folds by strike-slip (wrench) faults Calculation of strike-slip displacement Faults parallel to the limbs of a fold Sub-surface structures Posthumous folding Polyphase folding Bed isopachytes Exercises on geological survey maps Chapter 11 Igneous and impact features Pyroclastic rocks Concordant intrusions Disordant intrusions Impact features Exercise on geological survey map Impact features Chapter 12 Economic problems Chapter 13 Complex structures Nappes Thrust faults Axial plane cleavage Description of a geological map The geological history of Map 45 Exercise on geological survey map Appendix Glossary Index