An Introduction to Natural Language Processing Through PROLOG (Learning About Language)
By: Clive Matthews (author)Paperback
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Research into Natural Language Processing - the use of computers to process language - has developed over the last couple of decades into one of the most vigorous and interesting areas of current work on language and communication. This book introduces the subject through the discussion and development of various computer programs which illustrate some of the basic concepts and techniques in the field. The programming language used is Prolog, which is especially well-suited for Natural Language Processing and those with little or no background in computing. Following the general introduction, the first section of the book presents Prolog, and the following chapters illustrate how various Natural Language Processing programs may be written using this programming language. Since it is assumed that the reader has no previous experience in programming, great care is taken to provide a simple yet comprehensive introduction to Prolog. Due to the 'user friendly' nature of Prolog, simple yet effective programs may be written from an early stage.
The reader is gradually introduced to various techniques for syntactic processing, ranging from Finite State Network recognisors to Chart parsers. An integral element of the book is the comprehensive set of exercises included in each chapter as a means of cementing the reader's understanding of each topic. Suggested answers are also provided. An Introduction to Natural Language Processing Through Prolog is an excellent introduction to the subject for students of linguistics and computer science, and will be especially useful for those with no background in the subject.
Clive Matthews is a lecturer in Linguistics at the University of East Anglia.
Preface Part I: Introduction 1. Natural Language Processing 1.1 Natural Language Interfaces 1.2 The Linguistic Application of NLP 1.3 NLP as a Tool for Linguistic Research 1.4 Further Reading 2. The Challenge of Natural Language Processing 2.1 Knowledge of the Linguistic Structure 2.2 Ambiguity and Contextual Knowledge 2.3 The Process of Language Understanding 2.4 Psycholinguistics and NLP 2.5 Further Reading Part II: The Fundamentals of Prolog Programming 3. Facts 3.1 Facts 3.2 Asking Simple Questions in Prolog 3.3 Compound Questions 3.4 Questions and Variables 3.5 Finding Alternative Answers: Backtracking 3.6 Using Variables in Facts 3.7 Further Reading 4. Rules and Complex Names 4.1 Rules 4.2 How Prolog Answers Questions Using Rules 4.3 Structured Objects 5. Lists and Recursive Structures 5.1 Lists 5.2 Recursive Rules 6. Developing Prolog Programs 6.1 The Meaning of Prolog Programs 6.2 Designing Programs 6.3 Laying Out Programs 6.4 Search Trees 6.5 Search Strategies 6.6 Tracing a Proof 6.7 Some Common Programming Errors 7. Built-In Predicates 7.1 Input and Output 7.2 fail 7.3 consult and reconsult 7.4 Modifying a Database 7.5 Defining Operators 7.6 The 'cut' 7.7 Program Listing Part III: Natural Language Processing with Prolog 8. Sentence Recognition And Finite State Grammars 8.1 Sentence Frame Grammars 8.2 A Sentence Frame Grammar-based Recognisor 8.3 An Alternative Notation for Sentence Frame Grammars 8.4 An FSG-Based Recognisor 8.5 Extending The Range of Finite State Grammars 8.6 Further Reading 8.7 Program Listings 9. Recursive Transition Networks 9.1 Constituent Structure 9.2 Extending the Network Notation 9.3 An RTN-Based Recognisor 9.4 Implementing an RTN Recognisor in Prolog 9.5 Extending the RTN Notation 9.6 Further Reading 9.7 Program Listings 10. Phrase Structure Grammars 10.1 Phrase Structure Grammars 10.2 A Simple Phrase Structure Recognisor 10.3 Directly Representing Phrase Structure Grammars in Prolog 10.4 Efficiency 10.5 Difference Lists 10.6 The Grammar Rule Notation 10.7 Further Reading 10.8 Program Listings 11. Definite Clause Grammars 11.1 Grammar Symbols as Complex Terms 11.2 Procedure Calls 11.3 Further Reading 11.4 Program Listings 12. Alternative Parsing Strategies 12.1 A Top-Down Interpreter 12.2 Problems with Top-Down Parsing 12.3 A Bottom-Up Interpreter 12.4 A Left-Corner Interpreter 12.5 Deterministic Parsing 12.6 Chart Parsing 12.7 Further Reading 12.8 Program Listings Solutions to Exercises Glossary of Terms Bibliography Index
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