An Introduction to the Science of Cosmology (Series in Astronomy and Astrophysics)
By: Derek Raine (author), E. G. Thomas (author)Paperback
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A thorough introduction to modern ideas on cosmology and on the physical basis of the general theory of relativity, An Introduction to the Science of Cosmology explores various theories and ideas in big bang cosmology, providing insight into current problems. Assuming no previous knowledge of astronomy or cosmology, this book takes you beyond introductory texts to the point where you are able to read and appreciate the scientific literature, which is broadly referenced in the book. The authors present the standard big bang theory of the universe and provide an introduction to current inflationary cosmology, emphasizing the underlying physics without excessive technical detail. The book treats cosmological models without reliance on prior knowledge of general relativity, the necessary physics being introduced in the text as required. It also covers recent observational evidence pointing to an accelerating expansion of the universe. The first several chapters provide an introduction to the topics discussed later in the book. The next few chapters introduce relativistic cosmology and the classic observational tests. One chapter gives the main results of the hot big bang theory.
Next, the book presents the inflationary model and discusses the problem of the origin of structure and the correspondingly more detailed tests of relativistic models. Finally, the book considers some general issues raised by expansion and isotropy. A reference section completes the work by listing essential formulae, symbols, and physical constants. Beyond the level of many elementary books on cosmology, An Introduction to the Science of Cosmology encompasses numerous recent developments and ideas in the area. It provides more detailed coverage than many other titles available, and the inclusion of problems at the end of each chapter aids in self study and makes the book suitable for taught courses.
Preface RECONSTRUCTING TIME The patterns of the stars Structural relics Material relics Ethereal relics Cosmological principles Theories Problems EXPANSION The redshift The expanding universe The distance scale The Hubble constant The deceleration parameter The age of the universe The steady state theory The evolving universe Problems MATTER The mean mass density of the universe Determining the matter density The mean luminosity density The mass to luminosity ratios of galaxies The virial theorem The mass to luminosity ratios of rich clusters Baryonic matter Intracluster gas The gravitational lensing method The intercluster medium The non-baryonic dark matter Dark matter candidates The search for WIMPS Antimatter Appendix A: Derivation of the virial theorem Problems RADIATION Sources of background radiation The microwave background The hot big bang Radiation and expansion Nevertheless it moves The x-ray background Problems RELATIVITY Introduction Space geometry Relativistic geometry Isotropic and homogeneous geometry Other forms of the metric Open and closed spaces Fundamental (or comoving) observers Redshift The velocity-distance law Time dilation The field equations The dust universe The relationship between redshift and time Explicit solutions Models with a cosmological constant The radiation universe Light propagation in an expanding universe The Hubble sphere The particle horizon Alternative equations of state Problems MODELS The classical tests The Mattig relation The angular diameter - redshift test The apparent magnitude - redshift test The geometry of number counts: theory The timescale test The lensed quasar test Problems with big bang cosmology The flatness problem Alternative cosmologies Problems HOT BIG BANG Introduction Equilibrium thermodynamics The plasma universe The matter era The radiation era The era of equilibrium The GUT era: baryogenesis Photon to baryon ratio Nucleosynthesis The plasma era Decoupling Recombination Last scattering Perturbations Appendix A: Thermal distributions Appendix B: The Saha Equation Appendix C: Constancy of ? Problems INFLATION The horizon problem The flatness problem Origin of structure Mechanisms Fluctuations Starting Inflation Stopping inflation Topological defects Problems STRUCTURE The problem of structure Observations Surveys and catalogues Large scale structures Correlations Bias Growth of perturbations The Jeans' mass Adiabatic perturbations Isocurvature (isothermal) perturbations Superhorizon size perturbations Dissipation The spectrum of fluctuations Structure formation in baryonic models Dark matter models Observations of the microwave background Appendix A Appendix B Problems EPILOGUE Homogeneous anisotropy Growing modes The rotating universe The arrow of time REFERENCE MATERIAL REFERENCES
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