Analysis, Synthesis and Design of Chemical Processes (United States ed of 4th revised ed)

Analysis, Synthesis and Design of Chemical Processes (United States ed of 4th revised ed)

By: Wallace B. Whiting (author), Richard C. Bailie (author), Joseph A. Shaeiwitz (author), Debangsu Bhattacharyya (author), Richard Turton (author)Mixed Media

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Description

The leading integrated chemical process design guide: Now with extensive new coverage and more process designs More than ever, effective design is the focal point of sound chemical engineering. Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes, Fourth Edition, presents design as a creative process that integrates both the big picture and the small details-and knows which to stress when, and why. Realistic from start to finish, this updated edition moves readers beyond classroom exercises into open-ended, real-world process problem solving. The authors introduce integrated techniques for every facet of the discipline, from finance to operations, new plant design to existing process optimization. This fourth edition adds new chapters introducing dynamic process simulation; advanced concepts in steady-state simulation; extensive coverage of thermodynamics packages for modeling processes containing electrolyte solutions and solids; and a concise introduction to logic control. "What You Have Learned" summaries have been added to each chapter, and the text's organization has been refined for greater clarity. Coverage Includes * Conceptualization and analysis: flow diagrams, batch processing, tracing, process conditions, and product design strategies * Economic analysis: capital and manufacturing costs, financial calculations, and profitability analysis * Synthesis and optimization: principles, PFD synthesis, simulation techniques, top-down and bottom-up optimization, pinch technology, and software-based control * Advanced steady-state simulation: goals, models, solution strategies, and sensitivity and optimization studies * Dynamic simulation: goals, development, solution methods, algorithms, and solvers * Performance analysis: I/O models, tools, performance curves, reactor performance, troubleshooting, and "debottlenecking" * Societal impact: ethics, professionalism, health, safety, environmental issues, and green engineering * Interpersonal and communication skills: improving teamwork and group effectiveness This title draws on more than fifty years of innovative chemical engineering instruction at West Virginia University and the University of Nevada, Reno. It includes suggested curricula for single-semester and year-long design courses, case studies and practical design projects, current equipment cost data, and extensive preliminary design information that can be used as the starting point for more detailed analyses. About the CD-Rom and Web Site The CD contains the newest version of CAPCOST, a powerful tool for evaluating fixed capital investment, full process economics, and profitability. The heat exchanger network software, HENSAD, is also included. The CD also contains an additional appendix presenting preliminary design information for fifteen key chemical processes, including four new to this edition: shift reaction; acid-gas removal via physical solvent; H2S removal from a gas stream using the Claus process; and coal gasification. The CD also includes six additional projects, plus chapters on outcomes assessment, written and oral communications, and a written report case study. Sixty additional projects and twenty-four more problems are available at www.che.cemr.wvu.edu/publications/projects.

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About Author

Richard Turton is professor of chemical engineering and professor in the Statler College of Engineering and Mineral Resources at West Virginia University. He has taught WVU's senior design course for more than twenty-five years. Richard C. Bailie, professor emeritus at WVU, taught chemical engineering design for more than twenty years. He has extensive experience in process evaluation, pilot plant operation, and plant startup. Wallace B. Whiting, professor emeritus at the University of Nevada, Reno, has practiced and taught chemical process design for more than twenty-four years. Joseph A. Shaeiwitz has been involved in WVU's senior design sequence and sophomore- and junior-level integrated design projects for twenty years. Debangsu Bhattacharyya, associate professor in the department of chemical engineering at WVU, has worked in computer-aided simulation, design, construction, and in the operation of a large petroleum refinery for more than ten years.

Contents

Material on the CD-ROM xix Preface xxiii About the Authors xxvii List of Nomenclature xxix Section I: Conceptualization and Analysis of Chemical Processes 1 Chapter 1: Diagrams for Understanding Chemical Processes 3 What You Will Learn 3 1.1 Block Flow Diagram (BFD) 5 1.2 Process Flow Diagram (PFD) 8 1.3 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) 21 1.4 Additional Diagrams 26 1.5 Three-Dimensional Representation of a Process 27 1.6 The 3-D Plant Model 35 1.7 Operator and 3-D Immersive Training Simulators 37 1.8 Summary 43 What You Should Have Learned 43 References 44 Short Answer Questions 44 Problems 44 Chapter 2: The Structure and Synthesis of Process Flow Diagrams 49 What You Will Learn 49 2.1 Hierarchy of Process Design 49 2.2 Step 1-Batch versus Continuous Process 50 2.3 Step 2-The Input/Output Structure of the Process 54 2.4 Step 3-The Recycle Structure of the Process 64 2.5 Step 4-General Structure of the Separation System 78 2.6 Step 5-Heat-Exchanger Network or Process Energy Recovery System 78 2.7 Information Required and Sources 78 2.8 Summary 78 What You Should Have Learned 80 References 80 Short Answer Questions 81 Problems 81 Chapter 3: Batch Processing 87 What You Will Learn 87 3.1 Design Calculations for Batch Processes 87 3.2 Gantt Charts and Scheduling 93 3.3 Nonoverlapping Operations, Overlapping Operations, and Cycle Times 94 3.4 Flowshop and Jobshop Plants 97 3.5 Product and Intermediate Storage and Parallel Process Units 102 3.6 Design of Equipment for Multiproduct Batch Processes 107 3.7 Summary 109 What You Should Have Learned 110 References 110 Short Answer Questions 110 Problems 110 Chapter 4: Chemical Product Design 115 What You Will Learn 115 4.1 Strategies for Chemical Product Design 116 4.2 Needs 117 4.3 Ideas 119 4.4 Selection 120 4.5 Manufacture 122 4.6 Batch Processing 123 4.7 Economic Considerations 123 4.8 Summary 123 What You Should Have Learned 124 References 124 Chapter 5: Tracing Chemicals through the Process Flow Diagram 125 What You Will Learn 125 5.1 Guidelines and Tactics for Tracing Chemicals 125 5.2 Tracing Primary Paths Taken by Chemicals in a Chemical Process 126 5.3 Recycle and Bypass Streams 132 5.4 Tracing Nonreacting Chemicals 135 5.5 Limitations 135 5.6 Written Process Description 136 5.7 Summary 137 What You Should Have Learned 137 Problems 138 Chapter 6: Understanding Process Conditions 139 What You Will Learn 139 6.1 Conditions of Special Concern for the Operation of Separation and Reactor Systems 140 6.2 Reasons for Operating at Conditions of Special Concern 142 6.3 Conditions of Special Concern for the Operation of Other Equipment 146 6.4 Analysis of Important Process Conditions 150 6.5 Summary 157 What You Should Have Learned 157 References 158 Short Answer Questions 158 Problems 158 Section II: Engineering Economic Analysis of Chemical Processes 161 Chapter 7: Estimation of Capital Costs 163 What You Will Learn 163 7.1 Classifications of Capital Cost Estimates 164 7.2 Estimation of Purchased Equipment Costs 167 7.3 Estimating the Total Capital Cost of a Plant 172 7.4 Summary 198 What You Should Have Learned 198 References 198 Short Answer Questions 199 Problems 200 Chapter 8: Estimation of Manufacturing Costs 203 What You Will Learn 203 8.1 Factors Affecting the Cost of Manufacturing a Chemical Product 203 8.2 Cost of Operating Labor 208 8.3 Utility Costs 209 8.4 Raw Material Costs 223 8.5 Yearly Costs and Stream Factors 225 8.6 Estimating Utility Costs from the PFD 225 8.7 Cost of Treating Liquid and Solid Waste Streams 228 8.8 Evaluation of Cost of Manufacture for the Production of Benzene via the Hydrodealkylation of Toluene 228 8.9 Summary 229 What You Should Have Learned 230 References 230 Short Answer Questions 230 Problems 231 Chapter 9: Engineering Economic Analysis 233 What You Will Learn 233 9.1 Investments and the Time Value of Money 234 9.2 Different Types of Interest 238 9.3 Time Basis for Compound Interest Calculations 240 9.4 Cash Flow Diagrams 241 9.5 Calculations from Cash Flow Diagrams 245 9.6 Inflation 250 9.7 Depreciation of Capital Investment 253 9.8 Taxation, Cash Flow, and Profit 259 9.9 Summary 262 What You Should Have Learned 262 References 262 Short Answer Questions 263 Problems 263 Chapter 10: Profitability Analysis 269 What You Will Learn 269 10.1 A Typical Cash Flow Diagram for a New Project 269 10.2 Profitability Criteria for Project Evaluation 271 10.3 Comparing Several Large Projects: Incremental Economic Analysis 279 10.4 Establishing Acceptable Returns from Investments: The Concept of Risk 282 10.5 Evaluation of Equipment Alternatives 283 10.6 Incremental Analysis for Retrofitting Facilities 289 10.7 Evaluation of Risk in Evaluating Profitability 293 10.8 Profit Margin Analysis 310 10.9 Summary 311 What You Should Have Learned 311 References 312 Short Answer Questions 312 Problems 312 Section III: Synthesis and Optimization of Chemical Processes 327 Chapter 11: Utilizing Experience-Based Principles to Confirm the Suitability of a Process Design 331 What You Will Learn 331 11.1 The Role of Experience in the Design Process 332 11.2 Presentation of Tables of Technical Heuristics and Guidelines 335 11.3 Summary 338 What You Should Have Learned 356 References 356 Problems 356 Chapter 12: Synthesis of the PFD from the Generic BFD 357 What You Will Learn 357 12.1 Information Needs and Sources 358 12.2 Reactor Section 360 12.3 Separator Section 362 12.4 Reactor Feed Preparation and Separator Feed Preparation Sections 377 12.5 Recycle Section 378 12.6 Environmental Control Section 378 12.7 Major Process Control Loops 379 12.8 Flow Summary Table 379 12.9 Major Equipment Summary Table 380 12.10 Summary 380 What You Should Have Learned 380 References 381 Problems 382 Chapter 13: Synthesis of a Process Using a Simulator and Simulator Troubleshooting 385 What You Will Learn 385 13.1 The Structure of a Process Simulator 386 13.2 Information Required to Complete a Process Simulation: Input Data 389 13.3 Handling Recycle Streams 401 13.4 Choosing Thermodynamic Models 403 13.5 Case Study: Toluene Hydrodealkylation Process 414 13.6 Electrolyte Systems Modeling 416 13.7 Solids Modeling 429 What You Should Have Learned 434 Appendix 13.1 Calculation of Excess Gibbs Energy for Electrolyte Systems 434 Appendix 13.2 Steps to Build a Model of a Distillation Column for an Electrolyte System Using a Rate-Based Simulation with a Film Model for Mass Transfer, the Parameters Required at Each Stage, and Possible Sources of These Parameters 437 13.8 Summary 440 References 441 Short Answer Questions 444 Problems 444 Chapter 14: Process Optimization 451 What You Will Learn 451 14.1 Background Information on Optimization 451 14.2 Strategies 457 14.3 Topological Optimization 461 14.4 Parametric Optimization 467 14.5 Lattice Search Techniques versus Response Surface Techniques 478 14.6 Process Flexibility and the Sensitivity of the Optimum 479 14.7 Optimization in Batch Systems 479 14.8 Summary 487 What You Should Have Learned 487 References 487 Short Answer Questions 488 Problems 488 Chapter 15: Pinch Technology 499 What You Will Learn 499 15.1 Introduction 499 15.2 Heat Integration and Network Design 500 15.3 Composite Temperature-Enthalpy Diagram 514 15.4 Composite Enthalpy Curves for Systems without a Pinch 516 15.5 Using the Composite Enthalpy Curve to Estimate Heat-Exchanger Surface Area 517 15.6 Effectiveness Factor (F) and the Number of Shells 521 15.7 Combining Costs to give the EAOC for the Network 526 15.8 Other Considerations 527 15.9 Heat-Exchanger Network Synthesis Analysis and Design (HENSAD) Program 532 15.10 Mass-Exchange Networks 532 15.11 Summary 541 What You Should Have Learned 542 References 542 Short Answer Questions 543 Problems 543 Chapter 16: Advanced Topics Using Steady-State Simulators 551 What You Will Learn 551 16.1 Why the Need for Advanced Topics in Steady-State Simulation? 552 16.2 User-Added Models 552 16.3 Solution Strategy for Steady-State Simulations 562 16.4 Studies with the Steady-State Simulation 581 16.5 Estimation of Physical Property Parameters 586 16.6 Summary 589 What You Should Have Learned 590 References 590 Short Answer Questions 591 Problems 592 Chapter 17: Using Dynamic Simulators in Process Design 601 What You Will Learn 601 17.1 Why Is There a Need for Dynamic Simulation? 602 17.2 Setting Up a Dynamic Simulation 603 17.3 Dynamic Simulation Solution Methods 618 17.4 Process Control 624 17.5 Summary 632 What You Should Have Learned 632 References 633 Short Answer Questions 633 Problems 634 Chapter 18: Regulation and Control of Chemical Processes with Applications Using Commercial Software 641 What You Will Learn 641 18.1 A Simple Regulation Problem 642 18.2 The Characteristics of Regulating Valves 643 18.3 Regulating Flowrates and Pressures 646 18.4 The Measurement of Process Variables 649 18.5 Common Control Strategies Used in Chemical Processes 649 18.6 Exchanging Heat and Work between Process and Utility Streams 660 18.7 Logic Control 666 18.8 Advanced Process Control 669 18.9 Case Studies 670 18.10 Putting It All Together: The Operator Training Simulator (OTS) 676 18.11 Summary 677 What You Should Have Learned 677 References 678 Problems 678 Section IV: Analysis Of Process Performance 683 Chapter 19: Process Input/Output Models 685 What You Will Learn 685 19.1 Representation of Process Inputs and Outputs 686 19.2 Analysis of the Effect of Process Inputs on Process Outputs 689 19.3 A Process Example 690 19.4 Summary 691 What You Should Have Learned 692 Problems 692 Chapter 20: Tools for Evaluating Process Performance 693 What You Will Learn 693 20.1 Key Relationships 693 20.2 Thinking with Equations 694 20.3 Base-Case Ratios 696 20.4 Analysis of Systems Using Controlling Resistances 698 20.5 Graphical Representations 700 20.6 Summary 704 What You Should Have Learned 705 References 705 Problems 705 Chapter 21: Performance Curves for Individual Unit Operations 707 What You Will Learn 707 21.1 Application to Heat Transfer 709 21.2 Application to Fluid Flow 714 21.3 Application to Separation Problems 728 21.4 Summary 740 What You Should Have Learned 741 References 741 Short Answer Questions 741 Problems 743 Chapter 22: Performance of Multiple Unit Operations 749 What You Will Learn 749 22.1 Analysis of a Reactor with Heat Transfer 749 22.2 Performance of a Distillation Column 754 22.3 Performance of a Heating Loop 759 22.4 Performance of the Feed Section to a Process 765 22.5 Summary 768 What You Should Have Learned 769 References 769 Short Answer Questions 769 Problems 769 Chapter 23: Reactor Performance 785 What You Will Learn 785 23.1 Production of Desired Product 786 23.2 Reaction Kinetics and Thermodynamics 788 23.3 The Chemical Reactor 791 23.4 Heat Transfer in the Chemical Reactor 796 23.5 Reactor System Case Studies 799 23.6 Summary 812 What You Should Have Learned 813 References 813 Short Answer Questions 813 Problems 814 Chapter 24: Process Troubleshooting and Debottlenecking 819 What You Will Learn 819 24.1 Recommended Methodology 821 24.2 Troubleshooting Individual Units 825 24.3 Troubleshooting Multiple Units 831 24.4 A Process Troubleshooting Problem 836 24.5 Debottlenecking Problems 840 24.6 Summary 841 What You Should Have Learned 841 References 841 Problems 841 Section V: The Impact of Chemical Engineering Design on Society 853 Chapter 25: Ethics and Professionalism 855 What You Will Learn 855 25.1 Ethics 856 25.2 Professional Registration 874 25.3 Legal Liability 879 25.4 Business Codes of Conduct 880 25.5 Summary 881 What You Should Have Learned 881 References 882 Problems 882 Chapter 26: Health, Safety, and the Environment 885 What You Will Learn 885 26.1 Risk Assessment 886 26.2 Regulations and Agencies 888 26.3 Fires and Explosions 898 26.4 Process Hazard Analysis 900 26.5 Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board 909 26.6 Inherently Safe Design 909 26.7 Summary 910 26.8 Glossary 910 What You Should Have Learned 912 References 912 Problems 913 Chapter 27: Green Engineering 915 What You Will Learn 915 27.1 Environmental Regulations 915 27.2 Environmental Fate of Chemicals 916 27.3 Green Chemistry 919 27.4 Pollution Prevention during Process Design 920 27.5 Analysis of a PFD for Pollution Performance and Environmental Performance 922 27.6 An Example of the Economics of Pollution Prevention 923 27.7 Life Cycle Analysis 924 27.8 Summary 926 What You Should Have Learned 926 References 926 Problems 927 Section VI: Interpersonal And Communication Skills 929 Chapter 28: Teamwork 931 What You Will Learn 931 28.1 Groups 931 28.2 Group Evolution 940 28.3 Teams and Teamwork 943 28.4 Misconceptions 945 28.5 Learning in Teams 946 28.6 Other Reading 947 28.7 Summary 948 What You Should Have Learned 949 References 949 Problems 949 Appendix A: Cost Equations and Curves for the CAPCOST Program 951 A.1 Purchased Equipment Costs 951 A.2 Pressure Factors 969 A.3 Material Factors and Bare Module Factors 973 References 982 Index 983

Product Details

  • publication date: 22/06/2012
  • ISBN13: 9780132618120
  • Format: Mixed Media
  • Number Of Pages: 1104
  • ID: 9780132618120
  • weight: 1842
  • ISBN10: 0132618125
  • edition: United States ed of 4th revised ed

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