Analytical Methods for Food and Dairy Powders

Analytical Methods for Food and Dairy Powders

By: Romain Jeantet (author), Anne Dolivet (author), Dr. Pierre Schuck (author)Hardback

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Description

Food and dairy powders are created by dehydrating perishable produce, such as milk, eggs, fruit and meat, in order to extend their shelf life and stabilise them for storage or transport. These powders are in high demand for use as ingredients and as food products in their own right, and are of great economic importance to the food and dairy industry worldwide. Today, the ability to control food and dairy powder quality is a source of key competitive advantage. By varying the dehydration process design, and by controlling the technological and thermodynamic parameters during dehydration, it is possible for manufacturers to engineer the biochemical, microbiological and physical characteristics of the food powder to meet their specific product requirements. This book provides an overview of the existing, adapted or new techniques used to analyse safety and quality in modern food and dairy powders. Based on original research by the authors, the book uses 25 commercial dairy and non-dairy powders to illustrate a range of biochemical and physical methods used to evaluate and characterise powdered food products. Written from a practical perspective, each chapter focuses on a particular analytical technique, outlining the purpose, definition and principle of that method. The authors guide the reader through all of the instruments needed, the safety measures required, and the correct procedures to follow to ensure successful analysis. Instructions on accurate measurement and expression of results are included, and each chapter is richly illustrated with original data and worked examples. Analytical Methods for Food and Dairy Powders is a unique step-by-step handbook, which will be required reading for anyone involved in the development and manufacture of powdered food products. Food and dairy scientists based in industry will find it essential for new product development and improved quality control, while researchers in the laboratory will especially value the new techniques it comprises.

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About Author

Pierre Schuck, Anne Dolivet and Romain Jeantet are all based at INRA (the French National Institute for Agricultural Research), Agrocampus Ouest, Rennes, France. Pierre Schuck is Research Engineer, Anne Dolivet is Research Technician and Romain Jeantet is Professor in Food Science and Process Engineering.

Contents

Foreword xvii Chapter 1 Dehydration Processes and their Influence on Powder Properties 1 1.1. Overview of operations 2 1.1.1. Concentration by evaporation 2 1.1.2. Drying 8 1.2. Properties of dehydrated products 20 1.2.1. Biochemical and physicochemical properties 22 1.2.2. Microbiological properties 34 1.2.3. Properties of use 34 1.3. Bibliography 41 Chapter 2 Determination of Dry Matter and Total Dry Matter 45 2.1. Determination of free moisture or dry matter 46 2.1.1. Purpose and range of application 46 2.1.2. Definition 46 2.1.3. Principle 46 2.1.4. Reagents and other products 46 2.1.5. Instruments and glassware 46 2.1.6. Safety 47 2.1.7. Procedure 47 2.1.8. Expression of results 48 2.1.9. Remarks 48 2.1.10. Precision values 49 2.1.11. Examples 49 2.2. Determination of total moisture or total dry matter 50 2.2.1. Purpose and range of application 50 2.2.2. Definition 51 2.2.3. Principle 51 2.2.4. Reagents and other products 51 2.2.5. Instruments and glassware 51 2.2.6. Safety 53 2.2.7. Procedure 53 2.2.8. Expression of results 54 2.2.9. Remarks 55 2.2.10. Precision values 56 2.2.11. Analysis report 57 2.2.12. Examples 57 2.3. Bibliography 57 Chapter 3 Determination of Nitrogen Fractions 59 3.1. Determination of the total nitrogen content (Kjeldahl method) 60 3.1.1. Purpose and range of application 60 3.1.2. Definition 60 3.1.3. Principle 60 3.1.4. Reagents and other products 61 3.1.5. Instruments and glassware 61 3.1.6. Safety 62 3.1.7. Procedure 62 3.1.8. Expression of results 65 3.1.9. Precision values 66 3.1.10. Examples 66 3.1.11. Annex 67 3.2. Determination of the nitrogen content soluble at pH 4.60 69 3.2.1. Purpose and range of application 69 3.2.2. Definition 69 3.2.3. Principle 69 3.2.4. Reagents and other products 69 3.2.5. Instruments and glassware 70 3.2.6. Safety 70 3.2.7. Procedure 70 3.2.8. Expression of results 72 3.2.9. Precision values 73 3.2.10. Examples 73 3.2.11. Annex 73 3.3. Determination of the non-protein nitrogen content 76 3.3.1. Purpose and range of application 76 3.3.2. Definition 76 3.3.3. Principle 76 3.3.4. Reagents and other products 76 3.3.5. Instruments and glassware 77 3.3.6. Safety 77 3.3.7. Procedure 77 3.3.8. Expression of results 78 3.3.9. Precision values 79 3.3.10. Examples 80 3.3.11. Annex 80 3.4. Determination of non-denatured whey protein nitrogen in skimmed milk powder 82 3.4.1. Purpose and range of application 82 3.4.2. Definition 82 3.4.3. Principle 82 3.4.4. Expression of results 83 3.4.5. Remarks 83 3.4.6. Examples 84 3.5. Protein nitrogen conversion factors based on amino acid composition in the case of milk and soy 85 3.5.1. Methods for the determination of the conversion factor 85 3.5.2. Conversion factors for milk, specific milk proteins, certain milk products and infant formulas 86 3.5.3. Conversion factors for soy and its derivatives 88 3.5.4. Conclusion 90 3.6. Bibliography 90 Chapter 4 Determination of the Rate of Lactose Crystallisation 93 4.1. Definitions 94 4.2. Principle 95 4.2.1. Determination of the moisture content 95 4.2.2. Determination of the total moisture content 95 4.3. Expression of results 95 4.4. Remarks 95 4.5. Examples 96 4.6. Bibliography 96 Chapter 5 Determination of Total Fat and Free Fat Content 99 5.1. Determination of total fat content 100 5.1.1. Purpose and range of application 100 5.1.2. Definition 101 5.1.3. Principle 101 5.1.4. Reagents and other products 101 5.1.5. Instruments and glassware 101 5.1.6. Safety 102 5.1.7. Procedure 102 5.1.8. Expression of results 105 5.1.9. Remarks 106 5.1.10. Precision values 106 5.1.11. Examples 106 5.2. Determination of free fat content 107 5.2.1. Purpose and range of application 107 5.2.2. Definition 107 5.2.3. Principle 107 5.2.4. Reagents and other products 107 5.2.5. Instruments and glassware 107 5.2.6. Safety 108 5.2.7. Procedure 108 5.2.8. Expression of results 109 5.2.9. Remarks 109 5.2.10. Precision values 110 5.2.11. Analysis report 110 5.2.12. Examples 110 5.3. Bibliography 111 Chapter 6 Determination of the Ash Content 113 6.1. Definitions 114 6.2. Principle 114 6.3. Instruments and glassware 114 6.4. Personal protection 114 6.5. Procedure 114 6.5.1. Preparation of the sample 114 6.5.2. Preparation of the crucible 115 6.5.3. Sample 115 6.5.4. Measurement 115 6.6. Expression of results 116 6.7. Precision values 116 6.7.1. Repeatability 116 6.8. Examples 116 6.9. Bibliography 118 Chapter 7 Determination of Particle Size and Friability 119 7.1. Definition 119 7.2. Principle 119 7.3. Methods 120 7.3.1. Sieve particle size analysis 120 7.3.2. Laser particle size analysis 120 7.4. Reagents and other products 120 7.5. Instruments and glassware 120 7.5.1. Sieve particle size analysis 120 7.5.2. Laser particle size analysis 121 7.6. Personal protection 121 7.7. Procedure 121 7.7.1. Sieve particle size analysis 121 7.7.2. Laser particle size analysis 121 7.8. Expression of results 121 7.8.1. Sieve particle size analysis 121 7.8.2. Laser particle size analysis 122 7.8.3. Friability 123 7.9. Remarks 123 7.9.1. Particle size analysis 123 7.9.2. Sieve particle size analysis 124 7.9.3. Mesh size less than 120 mm 124 7.10. Precision values 124 7.10.1. Repeatability 124 7.11. Examples 125 7.12. Bibliography 127 Chapter 8 Determination of Flowability and Floodability Indices 129 8.1. Definition 129 8.1.1. Flowability fluidity 129 8.1.2. Floodability 130 8.2. Principle 130 8.2.1. Flowability fluidity 130 8.2.2. Floodability 130 8.3. Reagents and other products 130 8.4. Instruments and glassware 130 8.4.1. The main unit 131 8.4.2. Accessories 131 8.5. Procedure 132 8.5.1. Flowability fluidity 132 8.5.2. Floodability 136 8.6. Expression of results 137 8.6.1. Flowability fluidity 137 8.6.2. Floodability 137 8.7. Remarks 137 8.8. Precision values 140 8.8.1. Repeatability 140 8.9. Examples 140 8.10. Bibliography 143 Chapter 9 Determination of Density, Interstitial Air Content and Occluded Air Content 145 9.1. Definition 146 9.2. Principle 146 9.3. Methods 146 9.3.1. Bulk density, rB and tapped density, rT 146 9.3.2. True density, rTR 147 9.4. Equipment and glassware 147 9.4.1. Bulk density, rB and tapped density, rT 147 9.4.2. True density, rTR 147 9.5. Safety 147 9.5.1. Personal protection 147 9.6. Procedure 147 9.6.1. Bulk density, rB and tapped density, rT 147 9.6.2. True density, rTR 148 9.7. Expression of results 148 9.7.1. Bulk density (rB) 148 9.7.2. Tapped density (rT) 149 9.7.3. True density (rTR) 149 9.7.4. Interstitial air (IA) 149 9.7.5. Occluded air (OA) 149 9.8. Remarks 149 9.8.1. True density 149 9.8.2. True volume 150 9.9. Precision values 151 9.9.1. Repeatability 151 9.10. Examples 151 9.11. Bibliography 154 Chapter 10 Determination of Colour and Appearance 155 10.1. Determination of colour 155 10.1.1. Definitions 155 10.1.2. Principle 157 10.1.3. Instruments and glassware 158 10.1.4. Procedure 158 10.1.5. Expression of results 158 10.1.6. Precision values 160 10.1.7. Examples 160 10.2. Determination of the presence of scorched particles 161 10.2.1. Definition 161 10.2.2. Principle 162 10.2.3. Instruments and glassware 162 10.2.4. Reagent 162 10.2.5. Procedure 162 10.2.6. Expression of results 163 10.2.7. Precision values 164 10.2.8. Remarks 164 10.2.9. Examples 164 10.3. Bibliography 164 Chapter 11 Determination of the Sorption Isotherm, Water Activity and Hygroscopicity of Powders 167 11.1. Determination of water activity 168 11.1.1. Definition 168 11.1.2. Principle 169 11.1.3. Method 169 11.1.4. Instruments and glassware 170 11.1.5. Personal protection 170 11.1.6. Procedure 170 11.1.7. Expression of results 170 11.1.8. Remarks 171 11.1.9. Precision values 171 11.1.10. Examples 171 11.2. Determination of the sorption isotherm 173 11.2.1. Definition 173 11.2.2. Principle 173 11.2.3. Methods 173 11.2.4. Reagents and other products 175 11.2.5. Equipment and glassware 175 11.2.6. Personal protection 175 11.2.7. Procedure 175 11.2.8. Expression of results 176 11.2.9. Remarks 177 11.2.10. Precision values 178 11.2.11. Examples 178 11.3. Determination of hygroscopicity 184 11.3.1. Definition 184 11.3.2. Principle 184 11.3.3. Reagents and other products 184 11.3.4. Equipment and glassware 184 11.3.5. Personal protection 184 11.3.6. Procedure 184 11.3.7. Expression of results 185 11.3.8. Remarks 186 11.3.9. Precision values 187 11.3.10. Examples 187 11.4. Bibliography 189 Chapter 12 Determination of Glass Transition Temperature Range 191 12.1. Definition 191 12.2. Principle 192 12.3. Methods 192 12.3.1. Differential scanning calorimetry 192 12.3.2. Rheological method 193 12.4. Instruments and glassware 193 12.4.1. Differential calorimetry 193 12.4.2. Rheological method 194 12.5. Personal protection 194 12.6. Procedure 194 12.6.1. Differential calorimetry 194 12.6.2. Rheological method 195 12.7. Expression of results 195 12.7.1. Differential calorimetry 195 12.7.2. Rheological method 196 12.8. Remarks 196 12.8.1. Adapt methods depending on powders being analysed 196 12.8.2. Conventional or modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry 197 12.8.3. Tg values determined by differential scanning calorimetry and rheological analysis 197 12.9. Precision values 198 12.9.1. Repeatability 198 12.10. Examples 198 12.11. Bibliography 201 Chapter 13 Determination of Rehydration Ability 203 13.1. Determination of wettability 204 13.1.1. Definition 204 13.1.2. Principle 204 13.1.3. Instruments and glassware 204 13.1.4. Procedure 204 13.1.5. Expression of results 205 13.1.6. Remarks 205 13.1.7. Precision values 205 13.1.8. Examples 206 13.2. Determination of dispersibility 207 13.2.1. Definition 207 13.2.2. Principle 207 13.2.3. Instruments and glassware 207 13.2.4. Procedure 207 13.2.5. Expression of results 208 13.2.6. Remarks 208 13.2.7. Precision values 209 13.2.8. Examples 209 13.3. Determination of solubility 209 13.3.1. Definition 209 13.3.2. Principle 210 13.3.3. Reagents and other products 210 13.3.4. Instruments and glassware 211 13.3.5. Procedure 211 13.3.6. Expression of results 212 13.3.7. Remarks 212 13.3.8. Precision values 213 13.3.9. Examples 213 13.4. Bibliography 215 Chapter 14 Summary and General Conclusion 217 Index 227 A colour plate section falls between pages 156 and 157

Product Details

  • publication date: 23/03/2012
  • ISBN13: 9780470655986
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 248
  • ID: 9780470655986
  • weight: 552
  • ISBN10: 0470655984

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