Animal Manure Recycling: Treatment and Management

Animal Manure Recycling: Treatment and Management

By: Lars Stoumann Jensen (author), Morten L. Christensen (author), Sven G. Sommer (author), Thomas Schmidt (author)Hardback

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Description

A rapidly changing and expanding livestock and poultry production sector is causing a range of environmental problems on local, regional and global scales. Animal Manure Recycling: Treatment and Management presents an accessible overview of environmentally friendly technologies for managing animal manure more efficiently and in a sustainable manner. The book describes the physical and chemical characteristics of animal manure and microbial processes, featuring detailed examples and case studies showing how this knowledge can be used in practice. Readers are introduced to the sustainable use of animal manure for crop fertilisation and soil amelioration. Environmentally friendly technologies for reducing emissions of ammonia, odour and the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide and methane are presented, and reduction of plant nutrient losses using separation technologies is introduced. Finally and most importantly, the book describes methods to commercialise and transfer knowledge about innovations to end-users. Topics covered include: Regulation of animal manure management Manure organic matter: characteristics and microbial transformations Greenhouse gas emissions from animal manures and technologies for their reduction Technologies and logistics for handling, transport and distribution of animal manures Bioenergy production Animal manure residue upgrading and nutrient recovery in bio-fertilisers Life cycle assessment of manure management systems Innovation in animal manure management and recycling Animal Manure Recycling: Treatment and Management presents state-of-the-art coverage of the entire animal manure chain, providing practical information for engineers, environmental consultants, academics and advanced students involved in scientific, technical and regulatory issues related to animal manure management.

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Contents

List of Contributors xiii Preface xv Acknowledgements xvii 1 Animal Manure From Waste to Raw Materials and Goods 1 Sven Gjedde Sommer References 4 2 Animal Production and Animal Manure Management 5 Sven Gjedde Sommer and Morten Lykkegaard Christensen 2.1 Introduction 5 2.2 Housing, Feedlots and Exercise Areas 7 2.3 Management of Manure 15 2.4 Systems Analysis Method for Assessing Mass Flows 18 2.5 Summary 23 References 23 3 Regulations on Animal Manure Management 25 Sven Gjedde Sommer, Oene Oenema, Teruo Matsunaka and Lars Stoumann Jensen 3.1 Introduction 25 3.2 Environmental Issues 26 3.3 Need for Government Regulations 29 3.4 Global Regulation Multilateral Environmental Agreements 30 3.5 Regional Regulations Exemplified with EU Directives and Regulations 31 3.6 National Regulations on Agricultural Pollution 34 3.7 Summary 38 References 39 4 Manure Characterisation and Inorganic Chemistry 41 Morten Lykkegaard Christensen and Sven Gjedde Sommer 4.1 Introduction 41 4.2 Livestock Manure Categories 42 4.3 Physical Characterisation of Manure 45 4.3.1 Particle Size 45 4.4 Manure Inorganic Chemistry 49 4.5 Summary 63 References 63 5 Manure Organic Matter Characteristics and Microbial Transformations 67 Lars Stoumann Jensen and Sven Gjedde Sommer 5.1 Introduction 67 5.2 Manure Organic Matter Composition 68 5.3 Manure Microbiology 73 5.4 Microbial and Biochemical Transformations in Manure 75 5.5 Transformations of Nitrogen 82 5.6 Summary 87 References 87 6 Sanitation and Hygiene in Manure Management 91 Bjorn Vinner as 6.1 Hygiene Risks Associated with Manure Management 91 6.2 Why Must the Pathogens in Manure be Managed? 92 6.3 Manure Treatment Alternatives 95 6.4 Chemical Treatment 99 6.5 Summary 102 References 103 7 Solid Liquid Separation of Animal Slurry 105 Morten Lykkegaard Christensen, Knud Villy Christensen and Sven Gjedde Sommer 7.1 Introduction 105 7.2 Removal and Separation Efficiency 106 7.3 In-House Separation 107 7.4 Solid Liquid Separation of Manure Slurry 108 7.5 Pre-Treatment: Chemical Additives 119 7.6 Post-Treatment: Separation Techniques 124 7.7 Summary 129 References 129 8 Gaseous Emissions of Ammonia and Malodorous Gases 131 Sven Gjedde Sommer and Anders Feilberg 8.1 Introduction 131 8.2 Characteristics of Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide 132 8.3 Processes Involved in Emission 133 8.4 Two-Layer Transport and Release Model 141 8.5 Assessment of Gas Release and Emission 147 8.6 Summary 150 References 151 9 Ammonia and Malodorous Gases: Sources and Abatement Technologies 153 Anders Feilberg and Sven Gjedde Sommer 9.1 Introduction 153 9.2 Measurement Methods 154 9.3 Ammonia Emissions 157 9.4 Odour Emissions 164 9.5 Technologies and Additives to Reduce NH3 and Odour Emissions 167 9.6 Summary 172 References 173 10 Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Animal Manures and Technologies for their Reduction 177 Sven Gjedde Sommer, Tim J. Clough, David Chadwick and Soren O. Petersen 10.1 Introduction 177 10.2 Processes of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Production 179 10.3 Methane Production from Manure 180 10.4 Nitrous Oxide Production from Manure 183 10.5 Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions 186 10.6 Summary 191 References 192 11 Nutrient Leaching and Runoff from Land Application of Animal Manure and Measures for Reduction 195 Peter Sorensen and Lars Stoumann Jensen 11.1 Introduction 195 11.2 Leaching and Runoff of Manure Nitrogen 199 11.3 Leaching and Runoff of Manure Phosphorus 203 11.4 Leaching and Runoff of Potassium 207 11.5 Summary 208 References 208 12 Technologies and Logistics for Handling, Transport and Distribution of Animal Manures 211 Claus Gron Sorensen, Sven Gjedde Sommer, Dionysis Bochtis and Alan Rotz 12.1 Introduction 211 12.2 Overview of Manure Systems 213 12.3 Animal Manure Characteristics 213 12.4 Removal from Animal Houses 214 12.5 Manure Storage 217 12.6 Transport of Manure 219 12.7 Application of Manure in the Field 220 12.8 Manure Operations Management 222 12.9 Farm Scenarios 232 12.10 Summary 234 References 234 13 Bioenergy Production 237 Sven Gjedde Sommer, Alastair James Ward and James J. Leahy 13.1 Introduction 237 13.2 Biomass and Energy 240 13.3 Biogas Production 252 13.4 Summary 267 References 267 14 Animal Manure Residue Upgrading and Nutrient Recovery in Biofertilisers 271 Lars Stoumann Jensen 14.1 Introduction 271 14.2 Manure Upgrading Options 272 14.3 Composting of Manures 276 14.4 Drying and Pelletising Solid Manures 283 14.5 Manure Combustion and Gasification Ash 284 14.6 Biochar from Pyrolysis or Carbonisation of Solid Manures 287 14.7 Precipitates and Mineral Concentrates from Liquid Manures 288 14.8 Summary 290 References 291 15 Animal Manure Fertiliser Value, Crop Utilisation and Soil Quality Impacts 295 Lars Stoumann Jensen 15.1 Introduction 295 15.2 Fertilisation and Crop Nutrient Use Efficiency 296 15.3 Use of Animal Manures as Organic Fertilisers 302 15.4 Manure Fertiliser Value as Affected by Application Method, Manure Type and Treatment 308 15.5 Summary 324 References 325 16 Life Cycle Assessment of Manure Management Systems 329 Sander Bruun, Marieke ten Hoeve and Morten Birkved 16.1 Introduction 329 16.2 Introduction of Life Cycle Assessment Methodology 330 16.3 Four Phases of a Life Cycle Assessment 330 16.4 Goal and Scope 330 16.5 Inventory Analysis 334 16.6 Impact Assessment 336 16.7 Interpretation 339 16.8 Summary 339 References 341 17 Innovation in Animal Manure Management and Recycling 343 Thomas Schmidt 17.1 Introduction Why is Innovation Important? 343 17.2 Innovation Typology 345 17.3 Identifying New Innovations 347 17.4 Assessing the Potential of New Innovations 350 17.5 Commercialisation of New Innovations 352 17.6 Summary 355 References 355 Index

Product Details

  • publication date: 13/09/2013
  • ISBN13: 9781118488539
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 382
  • ID: 9781118488539
  • weight: 892
  • ISBN10: 1118488539

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  • 1st Class Delivery: Yes
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