Animated interactive characters and robots that are able to function in human social environments are being developed by a large number of research groups worldwide. Emotional expression, as a key element of human social interaction and communication, is often added in an attempt to make them appear more natural to us. How can such artefacts be given emotional displays that are believable and acceptable to humans? This is the central question of Animating Expressive Characters for Social Interaction.
The ability to express and recognize emotions is a fundamental aspect of social interaction. Not only is it a central research question, it has been explored in animated films, dance, and other expressive arts for a much longer period. This book is unique in presenting a multi-disciplinary approach to animation in its broadest sense: from internal mechanisms to external displays, not only from a graphical perspective, but more generally examining how to give characters an "anima", so that they appear as life-like entities and social partners to humans. (Series B)
1. About the editors; 2. List of contributors; 3. Introduction (by Canamero, Lola); 4. 1. Social emotions (by Dumouchel, Paul); 5. 2. Fabricating fictions using social role (by Hall, Lynne); 6. 3. What's in a robot's smile? The many meanings of positive facial display (by LaFrance, Marianne); 7. 4. Facial expressions in social interactions: Beyond basic emotions (by Kaiser, Susanne); 8. 5. Expressing emotion through body movement: A component process approach (by Coulson, Marc); 9. 6. Affective bodies for affective interactions (by Vala, Marco); 10. 7. Animating affective robots for social interaction (by Canamero, Lola); 11. 8. Dynamic models of multiple emotion activation (by Carofiglio, Valeria); 12. 9. Exercises in style for virtual humans (by Ruttkay, Zsofia); 13. 10. Expressive characters in anti-bullying education (by Aylett, Ruth); 14. 11. Psychological and social effects to elderly people by robot-assisted activity (by Shibata, Takanori); 15. 12. Designing avatars for social interactions (by Fabri, Marc); 16. 13. Applying socio-psychological concepts of cognitive consistency to negotiation dialog scenarios with embodied conversational characters (by Rist, Thomas); 17. 14. Semi-autonomous avatars: A new direction for expressive user embodiment (by Gillies, Marco); 18. 15. The Butterfly effect: Dancing with real and virtual expressive characters (by Goodman, Lizbeth); 19. 16. The robot and the baby (by McCarthy, John); 20. Subject index