The momentous events of the past year have changed the political face of the globe: the ideological struggle that dominated the world for most of this century is over; erstwhile mortal enemies have become friends and partners. But old attitudes have survived and modern weapons are in abundance. New foci of conflict have emerged; military confrontations are taking place; the world is still in turmoil.The welcome deep cuts in nuclear weapons have still left thousands of warheads in the arsenals, and the spread of these weapons to new states would further increase the danger of a nuclear confrontation.The release of the pressure pent-up under oppressive regimes created a powerful drive for independence, often achieved only after bloody wars. Many of the new states are economically non-viable: poverty and famine are frequent adjuncts of independence.If military conflicts are to be avoided, a comprehensive strategy must be formulated to improve the standards of living in the developing countries and enhance their security. A strategy is also needed to protect the environment from the effects of further industrialization and greater use of energy. What is needed is a concept of a sustainable, equitable and liveable world for all its inhabitants.All these problems were analysed by scientists and scholars who met at a Pugwash Conference. The arguments used by them and the proposed solutions are presented in this book under six themes: World Peace; Nuclear Disarmament Issues; Arms Control; Security in the Asia-Pacific Region; Development Strategies and World Economic Order; Energy and the Environment.