Many remarkable medical technologies, diagnostic tools, and treatment methods have emerged as a result of modern physics discoveries in the last century--including X-rays, radiation treatment, laser surgery, high-resolution ultrasound scans, computerized tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging. This undergraduate-level textbook describes the fundamental physical principles underlying these technological advances, emphasizing their applications to the practice of modern medicine. Intended for science and engineering students with one year of introductory physics background, this textbook presents the medical applications of fundamental principles of physics to students who are considering careers in medical physics, biophysics, medicine, or nuclear engineering. It also serves as an excellent reference for advanced students, as well as medical and health researchers, practitioners, and technicians who are interested in developing the background required to understand the changing landscape of medical science. Practice exercises are included and solutions are available separately in an instructor's manual.
* Complete discussion of the fundamental physical principles underlying modern medicine* Accessible exploration of the physics encountered in a typical visit to a doctor* Practice exercises are included and solutions are provided in a separate instructor's manual (available to professors)* A companion website (modernphysicsinmedicine.com) presents supplementary materials
Mark Strikman is Distinguished Professor of Physics at Pennsylvania State University. Kevork Spartalian is Associate Professor of Physics at the University of Vermont. Milton W. Cole is Distinguished Professor of Physics at Pennsylvania State University.
Preface and Guide to Using This Book xi Technical Abbreviations xv Timeline of Seminal Discoveries in Modern Physics xvii Timeline of Discoveries and Inventions in Modern Medical Physics xix Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Overview 1 1.2 The Meaning of the Term Modern Physics 5 1.3 Mortality 6 1.4 How to Use This Book 7 Exercises 8 Chapter 2 When You Visit Your Doctor: The Physics of the "Vital Signs" 2.1 Introduction 10 2.2 Stethoscope 11 2.3 Sphygmomanometer and Blood Pressure 12 2.4 Electrocardiogram 15 2.5 Physics and Physiology of Diet, Exercise, and Weight 17 Exercises 21 Chapter 3 Particles, Waves, and the Laws that Govern Them 3.1 What Is Modern Physics? 22 3.2 Light: Particle or Wave? 25 3.3 Atoms 30 3.4 Lasers 41 3.5 Relativity 45 3.6 Nuclei 53 3.7 X-Rays and Radioactivity 63 Exercises 80 Chapter 4 Photon and Charged-Particle Interactions with a Medium 4.1 Overview 84 4.2 Mean Free Path and Cross Sections 85 4.3 Photon Interactions 87 4.4 Electron and Positron Interactions 98 Exercises 104 Chapter 5 Interactions of Radiation with Living Tissue 5.1 Introduction 107 5.2 Cell Death Due to DNA Radiation Damage 108 5.3 Dependence of Cell Survival on the Dose 112 5.4 Low Doses of Radiation 116 5.5 Radiation Dose versus Altitude 119 Exercises 121 Chapter 6 Diagnostic Applications I: Photons and Radionuclides 6.1 Overview 122 6.2 Photons 122 6.3 X-Rays and Gamma Rays 133 6.4 Radionuclides 156 6.5 Novel Ideas for Nuclear Imaging 166 Exercises 168 Chapter 7 Diagnostic Applications II: MRI and Ultrasound 7.1 Overview 171 7.2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 172 7.3 Ultrasound 199 7.4 Multimodal Imaging 220 Exercises 224 Chapter 8 Applications in Treatment 8.1 Overview 226 8.2 Treatment with Radiation 226 8.3 Treatment with Particles 233 8.4 Treatment with Ultrasound 239 8.5 Treatment with Microwaves 244 8.6 Treatment with Lasers 244 Exercises 246 Appendix A Constants, Powers of 10, and Conversions Mentioned in the Text Fundamental Constants 247 Powers of 10 and Their Prefixes 247 Conversion Factors and Equations 248 Appendix B Mortality Modeling 251 Appendix C Evaluation of the Sound Field from One Transducer Far-field (Fraunhofer) Region 255 Near-field (Fresnel) Region 257 Notes 261 Index 267