Applied Urban Ecology: A Global Framework

Applied Urban Ecology: A Global Framework

By: Matthias Richter (editor), Ulrike Weiland (editor)Hardback

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Description

Applied Urban Ecology: A Global Framework explores ways in which the environmental quality of urban areas can be improved starting with existing environmental conditions and their dynamics. Written by an internationally renowned selection of scientists and practitioners, the book covers a broad range of established and novel approaches to applied urban ecology. Approaches chosen for the book are placed in the context of issues such as climate change, green- and open-space development, flood-risk assessment, threats to urban biodiversity, and increasing environmental pollution (especially in the megacities of newly industrialized countries). All topics covered were chosen because they are socially and socio-politically relevant today. Further topics covered include sustainable energy and budget management, urban water resource management, urban land management, and urban landscape planning and design. Throughout the book, concepts and methods are illustrated using case studies from around the world. A closing synopsis draws conclusions on how the findings of urban ecological research can be used in strategic urban management in the future. Applied Urban Ecology: A Global Framework is an advanced textbook for students, researchers and experienced practitioners in urban ecology and urban environmental research, planning, and practice.

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About Author

Matthias Richter, Environmental Scientist, Publicist and University Lecturer, Germany. Ulrike Weiland is Professor of Urban Ecology at the Institute for Geography, University of Leipzig, Germany.

Contents

List of contributors xi Foreword xiii PART I: INTRODUCTION 1 1. Urban ecology brief history and present challenges 3 Ulrike Weiland andMatthias Richter 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Brief history 3 1.2.1 Initials in urban natural history 3 1.2.2 Socioecological tradition 4 1.2.3 Complex bioecological tradition 4 1.2.4 Ecosystem-related tradition 4 1.3 Recent and present challenges 5 1.4 Purpose and structure of the book 7 1.4.1 Purpose of the book 7 1.4.2 Structure of the book 8 References 9 PART II: URBAN ECOLOGY: RELATED DISCIPLINES AND METHODS 13 2. Thematic methodical approaches to applied urban ecology 15 Matthias Richter and UlrikeWeiland 3. Monitoring urban land use changes with remote sensing techniques 18 Ellen Banzhaf andMaik Netzband 3.1 Land use changes and their consequences for urban ecology 18 3.2 Urban remote sensing (URS) and geographical information systems (GIS) for research in urban ecology 19 3.3 Measuring physical characteristics of urban areas with remote sensing technology 21 3.3.1 Effects of urban form on natural and man-made hazards 21 3.3.2 Urban dynamics and ecosystem function 23 3.4 Global initiatives to measure urban expansion and land use change 24 3.4.1 Global Urban Observatory of UN-HABITAT 24 3.4.2 "The Dynamics of Global Urban Expansion" a contribution by theWorld Bank 24 3.4.3 Socioeconomic data and applications Center (SEDAC) at the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University, New York, USA 25 3.4.4 The "100 Cities Project", Arizona State University, USA 26 3.5 Regional urban monitoring activities 26 3.5.1 Europe: ESPON, MOLAND and the Urban Atlas 26 3.5.2 Governmental research projects on urban growth in the United States 29 3.6 Synthesis and outlook 29 References 30 PART III: SELECTED FIELDS OF URBAN ECOLOGY 33 A. PATHWAYS OF THE ECOSYSTEM APPROACH. 4. Quantifying spatiotemporal patterns and ecological effects of urbanization: a multiscale landscape approach 35 Jianguo Wu, Alexander Buyantuyev, G. Darrel Jenerette, Jennifer Litteral, Kaesha Neil and Weijun Shen 4.1 Introduction 35 4.2 Characterizing the spatiotemporal pattern of urbanization 36 4.2.1 Quantifying urbanization patterns with landscape metrics 36 4.2.2 Other methods for quantifying urban landscape pattern 39 4.2.3 Effects of scale on the analysis of urban landscape patterns 39 4.2.4 Examples from CAP-LTER 40 4.3 Simulating spatiotemporal dynamics of urbanization 41 4.3.1 Importance of simulation models in urban studies 41 4.3.2 Approaches to simulating urban dynamics 41 4.3.3 Examples from CAP-LTER 42 4.4 Effects of urbanization on biodiversity and ecosystem processes: examples from CAP-LTER 43 4.4.1 Effects of urbanization on biodiversity 43 4.4.2 Effects of urbanization on soil biogeochemical patterns 44 4.4.3 Effects of urbanization on net primary production 45 4.4.4 Effects of urbanization on vegetation phenology 45 4.4.5 Urban heat islands and ecological effects 46 4.4.6 Ecosystem responses to urbanization-induced environmental changes 46 4.5 Concluding remarks 47 Acknowledgments 49 References 49 5. Designing urban systems: ecological strategies with stocks and flows of energy and material 54 Peter Baccini 5.1 The challenge of a new urbanity 54 5.2 Urban systems and their resource management 56 5.2.1 Methodology applied investigating resource management of complex systems 56 5.2.2 Relevant differences between agrarian and urban systems on a regional scale 56 5.2.3 The resource management perspectives on a global scale 58 5.2.4 The essential mass resources in the development of urban regions 59 5.3 Strategies of reconstruction 60 5.3.1 The 2000 watt society 60 5.3.2 Transformation of urban regions in a "time of safe practice" 61 5.3.3 The exploration of urban stocks 61 5.4 Developing strategies for the design of urban systems 63 References 65 B. SOCIOENVIRONMENTAL THREATS. 6. Environmental and ecological threats in Indian mega-cities 66 Surinder Aggarwal and Carsten Butsch 6.1 Urbanization dynamics and emergence of mega-cities 66 6.2 Environmental threats 68 6.2.1 Environmental threats from waste water and sewerage disposal 68 6.2.2 Deteriorating air quality 69 6.2.3 Urban wastemismanagement and environmental degradation 71 6.2.4 Ecosystem damages and ecological footprints 72 6.2.5 Threats from natural hazards, disasters, and climate change 73 6.3 Mega-social challenges 74 6.3.1 Poverty and fragmentation 75 6.3.2 Rising vulnerabilities and insecurities 76 6.3.3 Inequities and inequalities in urban services 77 6.4 Concluding remarks 78 Acknowledgments 80 References 80 7. From wasteland to wilderness aspects of a new form of urban nature 82 Dieter Rink and Harriet Herbst 7.1 Introduction 82 7.2 Urban wilderness some attempts at defining the term 83 7.3 Wastelands as a source of urban wilderness 83 7.4 Urban wilderness in planning 85 7.5 On the ecology of urban wilderness 86 7.6 Urban wilderness in a social context 87 7.7 Educational value of urban wilderness 89 7.8 Conclusions 90 References 91 C. FLOODING AND CLIMATE ADAPTATION. 8. Multiscale flood risk assessment in urban areas a geoinformatics approach 93 Norman Kerle and Dinand Alkema 8.1 Introduction 93 8.2 Flood risk in the context of urban ecology 94 8.3 Comprehensive flood risk assessment Naga City, the Philippines 96 8.3.1 Floods in Naga 96 8.3.2 Naga's flood management practices 97 8.3.3 Model-based flood scenario studies 97 8.3.4 Linking flood modeling with disaster management 98 8.3.5 Naga as example for other flood-prone cities 99 8.4 The role of remote sensing in flood risk assessment and management 99 8.4.1 Quasistatic hazard data 100 8.4.2 Dynamic hazard data 101 8.4.3 Mapping elements at risk 102 8.5 Disaster risk in the context of urban ecology an outlook 104 References 104 9. Urban open spaces and adaptation to climate change 106 Marialena Nikolopoulou 9.1 Cities, climate change and the role of open spaces 106 9.2 Outdoor comfort 107 9.3 Use of space 108 9.3.1 Seasonal profile 108 9.3.2 Diurnal profile 108 9.4 Thermal perception 111 9.5 Adaptation 113 9.5.1 Physical adaptation 113 9.5.2 Psychological adaptation, 113 9.6 Design interventions 116 9.6.1 Materials 117 9.6.2 Vegetation 118 9.6.3 Shading 118 9.6.4 Water 119 9.6.5 Other measures 119 9.7 Conclusions 120 References 121 D. URBAN BIODIVERSITY. 10. Social aspects of urban ecology in developing countries, with an emphasis on urban domestic gardens 123 Sarel Cilliers, Stefan Siebert, Elandrie Davoren and Rina Lubbe 10.1 Introduction 123 10.2 Social benefits and human perceptions of urban green areas 124 10.3 Consequences of socioeconomic aspects on the urban green infrastructure 125 10.4 Urban domestic gardens 126 10.4.1 Literature review 126 10.4.2 Case studies from the North-West Province, South Africa 128 10.5 Conclusions 133 References 135 11. Plant material for urban landscapes in the era of globalization: roots, challenges and innovative solutions 139 Maria Ignatieva 11.1 Introduction 139 11.2 The beginning of plant material globalization 139 11.3 Victorian Gardenesque (1820 1880) 140 11.4 Influence of the Victorian garden on the global planting pattern 142 11.5 Victorian tropical and subtropical paradise 143 11.6 Modern nurseries direction: global pool of plants 145 11.7 Innovative solutions: searching for new ecological planting design 148 11.7.1 Europe: United Kingdom 148 11.7.2 Europe: The Netherlands 148 11.7.3 Europe: Germany 148 11.7.4 United States 149 11.7.5 New Zealand: modern approach to planting design 149 11.8 Discussion and conclusion 150 Acknowledgments 150 References 150 E. ENVIRONMENTAL URBAN DESIGN. 12. Ecological infrastructure leads the way: the negative approach and landscape urbanism for smart preservation and smart growth 152 Kongjian Yu 12.1 Introduction 152 12.1.1 Urbanization in China challenges survival 152 12.1.2 The failure of the conventional approach in urban development planning 153 12.1.3 Green infrastructure leads the way: the negative approach and landscape urbanism 154 12.2 The negative approach: methodology 158 12.2.1 Process analysis 158 12.2.2 Defining landscape security patterns 159 12.2.3 Defining ecological infrastructure 159 12.2.4 Defining urban form at the large scale: urban growth alternatives based on regional EI 159 12.2.5 Defining urban form at the intermediate scale: urban open spaces system based on EI 159 12.2.6 Defining urban form at the small scale: site-specific urban development alternatives based on EI 159 12.3 Urban growth based on EI: a case of negative planning for Taizhou City 159 12.3.1 Critical landscape processes 161 12.3.2 Defining landscape security patterns for the targeted processes 162 12.3.3 Defining ecological infrastructure 164 12.3.4 Scenarios of urban growth pattern based on the regional ecological infrastructure 164 12.3.5 Shaping urban form at the intermediate scale 165 12.3.6 Shaping urban land development at the small scale 165 12.4 Conclusion 165 References 166 13. Integrating science and creativity for landscape planning and design of urban areas 170 Antje Stokman and Christina von Haaren 13.1 Introduction 170 13.2 Landscape planning as a legally based contribution to sustainable development in Germany 171 13.2.1 Tasks of landscape planning 171 13.2.2 Methodologies of landscape planning 172 13.3 Landscape design as a creative cultural action 173 13.3.1 Tasks of landscape design 173 13.3.2 Methodologies of landscape design 174 13.4 Linking landscape planning and design: differences, interfaces and potential synergies 175 13.4.1 A matter of timeline and scale: linking multidimensional perspectives on strategic landscape development 175 13.4.2 A matter of perception and meaning: linking environmental goals and cultural concepts 176 13.4.3 A matter of process and learning: linking management and experimentation to achieve adaptive landscape development 178 13.4.4 A matter of involvement and experience: linking information and participation 181 13.5 Conclusion 182 Acknowledgment 183 References 183 14. Landscape as a living system: Shanghai 2010 Expo Houtan Park 186 Kongjian Yu 14.1 Introduction 186 14.2 Objective 186 14.3 Challenges 186 14.3.1 Pollution 186 14.3.2 Flooding 186 14.3.3 Circulation 187 14.3.4 Transformation 187 14.3.5 Identity 187 14.3.6 Form 188 14.4 Design concept and strategy: a living system 188 14.4.1 Ecological landscape 189 14.4.2 Three dimensions of meanings 190 14.4.3 Experience network 191 14.5 Conclusions 192 F. ENVIRONMENTAL URBAN POLITICS. 15. Geographical perspectives on a radical political ecology of water 193 Alex Loftus 15.1 Introduction 193 15.2 The urbanization of nature 194 15.3 Urban political ecologies of water 195 15.4 Privatization questions 196 15.5 Taking the debates forward 199 15.6 Infrastructures of power: democratizing water technologies 199 15.7 The everyday 201 15.8 Conclusions 202 References 202 PART IV: SYNTHESIS 205 16. Synthesizing urban ecology research and topics for urban environmental management 207 Matthias Richter and UlrikeWeiland Index 213

Product Details

  • publication date: 04/11/2011
  • ISBN13: 9781444333398
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 235
  • ID: 9781444333398
  • weight: 776
  • ISBN10: 1444333399

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