Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals (Wiley Series in Renewable Resource)

Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals (Wiley Series in Renewable Resource)

By: Charles E. Wyman (editor)Hardback

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Description

Plant biomass is attracting increasing attention as a sustainable resource for large-scale production of renewable fuels and chemicals. However, in order to successfully compete with petroleum, it is vital that biomass conversion processes are designed to minimize costs and maximize yields. Advances in pretreatment technology are critical in order to develop high-yielding, cost-competitive routes to renewable fuels and chemicals. Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals presents a comprehensive overview of the currently available aqueous pretreatment technologies for cellulosic biomass, highlighting the fundamental chemistry and biology of each method, key attributes and limitations, and opportunities for future advances. Topics covered include: The importance of biomass conversion to fuels The role of pretreatment in biological and chemical conversion of biomass Composition and structure of biomass, and recalcitrance to conversion Fundamentals of biomass pretreatment at low, neutral and high pH Ionic liquid and organosolv pretreatments to fractionate biomass Comparative data for application of leading pretreatments and effect of enzyme formulations Physical and chemical features of pretreated biomass Economics of pretreatment for biological processing Methods of analysis and enzymatic conversion of biomass streams Experimental pretreatment systems from multiwell plates to pilot plant operations This comprehensive reference book provides an authoritative source of information on the pretreatment of cellulosic biomass to aid those experienced in the field to access the most current information on the topic. It will also be invaluable to those entering the growing field of biomass conversion.

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About Author

Professor Charles Wyman has devoted most of his career to leading advancement of technology for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol and other products that will reduce our excessive dependence on petroleum. A substantial portion of this research is directed at advancing technologies for the most expensive and critical unit operations: pretreatment and cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis. Professor Wyman is Chair in Environmental Engineering at the Center for Environmental Research and Technology and Professor in Chemical and Environmental Engineering at the University of California at Riverside.

Contents

List of Contributors xvii Foreword xxi Series Preface xxiii Preface xxv Acknowledgements xxvii 1 Introduction 1 Charles E. Wyman 1.1 Cellulosic Biomass: What and Why? 2 1.2 Aqueous Processing of Cellulosic Biomass into Organic Fuels and Chemicals 3 1.3 Attributes for Successful Pretreatment 5 1.4 Pretreatment Options 7 1.5 Possible Blind Spots in the Historic Pretreatment Paradigm 8 1.6 Other Distinguishing Features of Pretreatment Technologies 9 1.7 Book Approach 9 1.8 Overview of Book Chapters 10 2 Cellulosic Biofuels: Importance, Recalcitrance, and Pretreatment 17 Lee Lynd and Mark Laser 2.1 Our Place in History 17 2.2 The Need for Energy from Biomass 17 2.3 The Importance of Cellulosic Biomass 18 2.4 Potential Barriers 18 2.5 Biological and Thermochemical Approaches to the Recalcitrance Barrier 19 2.6 Pretreatment 20 3 Plant Cell Walls: Basics of Structure, Chemistry, Accessibility and the Influence on Conversion 23 Brian H. Davison, Jerry Parks, Mark F. Davis and Bryon S. Donohoe 3.1 Introduction 23 3.2 Biomass Diversity Leads to Variability in Cell-wall Structure and Composition 24 3.3 Processing Options for Accessing the Energy in the Lignocellulosic Matrix 26 3.4 Plant Tissue and Cell Types Respond Differently to Biomass Conversion 28 3.5 The Basics of Plant Cell-wall Structure 29 3.6 Cell-wall Surfaces and Multilamellar Architecture 30 3.7 Cell-wall Ultrastructure and Nanoporosity 31 3.8 Computer Simulation in Understanding Biomass Recalcitrance 32 3.9 Summary 35 4 Biological Conversion of Plants to Fuels and Chemicals and the Effects of Inhibitors 39 Eduardo Ximenes, Youngmi Kim and Michael Ladisch 4.1 Introduction 39 4.2 Overview of Biological Conversion 40 4.3 Enzyme and Ethanol Fermentation Inhibitors Released During Pretreatment and/or Enzyme Hydrolysis 42 4.4 Hydrolysis of Pentose Sugar Oligomers Using Solid-acid Catalysts 50 4.5 Conclusions 56 5 Catalytic Strategies for Converting Lignocellulosic Carbohydrates to Fuels and Chemicals 61 Jesse Q. Bond, David Martin Alonso and James A. Dumesic 5.1 Introduction 61 5.2 Biomass Conversion Strategies 62 5.3 Criteria for Fuels and Chemicals 64 5.4 Primary Feedstocks and Platforms 66 5.5 Sugar Conversion and Key Intermediates 68 5.6 Conclusions 91 6 Fundamentals of Biomass Pretreatment at Low pH 105 Heather L. Trajano and Charles E. Wyman 6.1 Introduction 105 6.2 Effects of Low pH on Biomass Solids 106 6.3 Low-pH Hydrolysis of Cellulose and Hemicellulose 110 6.4 Pretreatment in Support of Chemical Conversion 116 6.5 Models of Low-pH Biomass Reactions 118 6.6 Conclusions 124 7 Fundamentals of Aqueous Pretreatment of Biomass 133 Nathan S. Mosier 7.1 Introduction 133 7.2 Self-ionization of Water Catalyzes Plant Cell-wall Depolymerization 134 7.3 Products from the Hydrolysis of the Plant Cell Wall Contribute to Further Depolymerization 135 7.4 Mechanisms of Aqueous Pretreatment 135 7.5 Impact of Aqueous Pretreatment on Cellulose Digestibility 141 7.6 Practical Applications of Liquid Hot Water Pretreatment 142 7.7 Conclusions 144 8 Fundamentals of Biomass Pretreatment at High pH 149 Rocyo Sierra, Mark Holtzapple and Natalia Piamonte 8.1 Introduction 149 8.2 Chemical Effects of Alkaline Pretreatments on Biomass Composition 150 8.3 Ammonia Pretreatments 157 8.4 Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatments 159 8.5 Alkaline Wet Oxidation 159 8.6 Lime Pretreatment 162 8.7 Pretreatment Severity 165 8.8 Pretreatment Selectivity 165 8.9 Concluding Remarks 167 9 Primer on Ammonia Fiber Expansion Pretreatment 173 S.P.S. Chundawat, B. Bals, T. Campbell, L. Sousa, D. Gao, M. Jin, P. Eranki, R. Garlock, F. Teymouri, V. Balan and B.E. Dale 9.1 Historical Perspective of Ammonia-based Pretreatments 173 9.2 Overview of AFEX and its Physicochemical Impacts 174 9.3 Enzymatic and Microbial Activity on AFEX-treated Biomass 179 9.4 Transgenic Plants and AFEX Pretreatment 187 9.5 Recent Research Developments on AFEX Strategies and Reactor Configurations 189 9.6 Perspectives on AFEX Commercialization 191 9.7 Environmental and Life-cycle Analyses for AFEX-centric Processes 197 9.8 Conclusions 198 10 Fundamentals of Biomass Pretreatment by Fractionation 205 Poulomi Sannigrahi and Arthur J. Ragauskas 10.1 Introduction 205 10.2 Organosolv Pretreatment 206 10.3 Nature of Organosolv Lignin and Chemistry of Organosolv Delignification 214 10.4 Structural and Compositional Characteristics of Cellulose 219 10.5 Co-products of Biomass Fractionation by Organosolv Pretreatment 220 10.6 Conclusions and Recommendations 223 11 Ionic Liquid Pretreatment: Mechanism, Performance, and Challenges 229 Seema Singh and Blake A. Simmons 11.1 Introduction 229 11.2 Ionic Liquid Pretreatment: Mechanism 231 11.3 Ionic Liquid Biomass Pretreatment: Enzymatic Route 234 11.4 Ionic Liquid Pretreatment: Catalytic Route 237 11.5 Factors Impacting Scalability and Cost of Ionic Liquid Pretreatment 239 11.6 Concluding Remarks 240 12 Comparative Performance of Leading Pretreatment Technologies for Biological Conversion of Corn Stover, PoplarWood, and Switchgrass to Sugars 245 Charles E. Wyman, Bruce E. Dale, Venkatesh Balan, Richard T. Elander, Mark T. Holtzapple, Rocyo Sierra Ramirez, Michael R. Ladisch, Nathan Mosier, Y.Y. Lee, Rajesh Gupta, Steven R. Thomas, Bonnie Hames, Ryan Warner and Rajeev Kumar 12.1 Introduction 246 12.2 Materials and Methods 248 12.3 Yields of Xylose and Glucose from Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis 251 12.4 Impact of Changes in Biomass Sources 255 12.5 Compositions of Solids Following CAFI Pretreatments 257 12.6 Pretreatment Conditions to Maximize Total Glucose Plus Xylose Yields 260 12.7 Implications of the CAFI Results 261 12.8 Closing Thoughts 262 13 Effects of Enzyme Formulation and Loadings on Conversion of Biomass Pretreated by Leading Technologies 267 Rajesh Gupta and Y.Y. Lee 13.1 Introduction 267 13.2 Synergism among Cellulolytic Enzymes 268 13.3 Hemicellulose Structure and Hemicellulolytic Enzymes 269 13.4 Substrate Characteristics and Enzymatic Hydrolysis 270 13.5 Xylanase Supplementation for Different Pretreated Biomass and Effect of b-Xylosidase 271 13.6 Effect of b-Glucosidase Supplementation 275 13.7 Effect of Pectinase Addition 275 13.8 Effect of Feruloyl Esterase and Acetyl Xylan Esterase Addition 276 13.9 Effect of a-L-arabinofuranosidase and Mannanase Addition 276 13.10 Use of Lignin-degrading Enzymes (LDE) 277 13.11 Effect of Inactive Components on Biomass Hydrolysis 277 13.12 Adsorption and Accessibility of Enzyme with Different Cellulosic Substrates 277 13.13 Tuning Enzyme Formulations to the Feedstock 278 13.14 Summary 279 14 Physical and Chemical Features of Pretreated Biomass that Influence Macro-/Micro-accessibility and Biological Processing 287 Rajeev Kumar and Charles E. Wyman 14.1 Introduction 287 14.2 Definitions of Macro-/Micro-accessibility and Effectiveness 289 14.3 Features Influencing Macro-accessibility and their Impacts on Enzyme Effectiveness 290 14.4 Features Influencing Micro-accessibility and their Impact on Enzymes Effectiveness 295 14.5 Concluding Remarks 299 15 Economics of Pretreatment for Biological Processing 317 Ling Tao, Andy Aden and Richard T. Elander 15.1 Introduction 317 15.2 Importance of Pretreatment 317 15.3 History of Pretreatment Economic Analysis 319 15.4 Methodologies for Economic Assessment 320 15.5 Overview of Pretreatment Technologies 321 15.6 Comparative Pretreatment Economics 322 15.7 Impact of Key Variables on Pretreatment Economics 333 15.8 Future Needs for Evaluation of Pretreatment Economics 337 15.9 Conclusions 338 16 Progress in the Summative Analysis of Biomass Feedstocks for Biofuels Production 341 F.A. Agblevor and J. Pereira 16.1 Introduction 341 16.2 Preparation of Biomass Feedstocks for Analysis 343 16.3 Determination of Non-structural Components of Biomass Feedstocks 344 16.4 Quantitative Determination of Lignin Content of Biomass 346 16.5 Quantitative Analysis of Sugars in Lignocellulosic Biomass 348 16.6 Chemical Hydrolysis of Biomass Polysaccharides 349 16.7 Analysis of Monosaccharides 351 16.8 Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) 353 16.9 High-performance Liquid Chromatographic Sugar Analysis 353 16.10 NMR Analysis of Biomass Sugars 355 16.11 Conclusions 355 17 High-throughput NIR Analysis of Biomass Pretreatment Streams 361 Bonnie R. Hames 17.1 Introduction 361 17.2 Rapid Analysis Essentials 362 17.3 Summary 372 18 Plant Biomass Characterization: Application of Solution- and Solid-state NMR Spectroscopy 375 Yunqiao Pu, Bassem Hallac and Arthur J. Ragauskas 18.1 Introduction 375 18.2 Plant Biomass Constituents 376 18.3 Solution-state NMR Characterization of Lignin 377 18.4 Solid-state NMR Characterization of Plant Cellulose 387 18.5 Future Perspectives 393 19 Xylooligosaccharides Production, Quantification, and Characterization in Context of Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment 397 Qing Qing, Hongjia Li, Rajeev Kumar and Charles E. Wyman 19.1 Introduction 397 19.2 Xylooligosaccharides Production 400 19.3 Xylooligosaccharides Separation and Purification 403 19.4 Characterization and Quantification of Xylooligosaccharides 408 19.5 Concluding Remarks 414 20 Experimental Pretreatment Systems from Laboratory to Pilot Scale 423 Richard T. Elander 20.1 Introduction 423 20.2 Laboratory-scale Pretreatment Equipment 427 20.3 Pilot-scale Batch Pretreatment Equipment 430 20.4 Pilot-scale Continuous Pretreatment Equipment 433 20.5 Continuous Pilot-scale Pretreatment Reactor Systems 445 20.6 Summary 451 21 Experimental Enzymatic Hydrolysis Systems 457 Todd Lloyd and Chaogang Liu 21.1 Introduction 457 21.2 Cellulases 458 21.3 Hemicellulases 459 21.4 Kinetics of Enzymatic Hydrolysis 460 21.5 Experimental Hydrolysis Systems 466 21.6 Conclusion 471 22 High-throughput Pretreatment and Hydrolysis Systems for Screening Biomass Species in Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass 477 Jaclyn DeMartini and Charles E. Wyman 22.1 Introduction: The Need for High-throughput Technologies 477 22.2 Previous High-throughput Systems and Application to Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis 478 22.3 Current HTPH Systems 479 22.4 Key Steps in HTPH Systems 484 22.5 HTPH Philosophy, Difficulties, and Limitations 488 22.6 Examples of Research Enabled by HTPH Systems 490 22.7 Future Applications 491 22.8 Conclusions and Recommendations 491 23 Laboratory Pretreatment Systems to Understand Biomass Deconstruction 495 Bin Yang and Melvin Tucker 23.1 Introduction 495 23.2 Laboratory-scale Batch Reactors 497 23.3 Laboratory-scale Continuous Pretreatment Reactors 507 23.4 Deconstruction of Biomass with Bench-Scale Pretreatment Systems 509 23.5 Heat and Mass Transfer 511 23.6 Biomass Handling and Comminuting 514 23.7 Construction Materials 514 23.8 Criteria of Reactor Selection and Applications 516 23.9 Summary 519 Acknowledgments 520 References 520 Index

Product Details

  • publication date: 10/05/2013
  • ISBN13: 9780470972021
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 566
  • ID: 9780470972021
  • weight: 1166
  • ISBN10: 0470972025

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