Archaeology of East Asia: The Rise of Civilisation in China, Korea and Japan.

Archaeology of East Asia: The Rise of Civilisation in China, Korea and Japan.

By: Gina Lee Barnes (author)Hardback

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Archaeology of East Asia constitutes an introduction to social and political development from the Palaeolithic to 8th-century early historic times. It takes a regional view across China, Korea, Japan and their peripheries that is unbounded by modern state lines. This viewpoint emphasizes how the region drew on indigenous developments and exterior stimuli to produce agricultural technologies, craft production, political systems, religious outlooks and philosophies that characterize the civilization of historic and even modern East Asia. This book is a complete rewrite and update of The Rise of Civilization in East Asia, first published in 1993. It incorporates the many theoretical, technical and factual advances of the last two decades, including DNA, gender, and isotope studies, AMS radiocarbon dating and extensive excavation results. Readers of that first edition will find the same structure and topic progression. While many line drawings have been retained, new colour illustrations abound. Boxes and Appendices clarify and add to the understanding of unfamiliar technologies. For those seeking more detail, the Appendices also provide case studies that take intimate looks at particular data and current research. The book is suitable for general readers, East Asian historians and students, archaeology students and professionals. Praise for The Rise of Civilization in East Asia: "...the best English introduction to the archaeology of East Asia ... brilliantly integrates the three areas into a broad regional context." Prof. Mark Hudson

About Author

Gina Barnes, a California native raised in Colorado, has spent her working life in England, finishing her Ph.D. on Japanese state formation for the University of Michigan (1983) while teaching East Asian archaeology as Assistant Lecturer in the Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge (1981-85). She worked briefly at the University of Leiden (1986), where she expanded her interests in Korean state formation, then returned to St. John's College, Cambridge, as a Senior Researcher (1987-95). In 1996, she took up the post of Professor of Japanese Studies at Durham University, from which she retired as Emeritus Professor in 2006 and collected a BSc in Geosciences (Geology) from the Open University in 2012. She founded the East Asian Archaeology Network in 1990, which became the Society for East Asian Archaeology in 1996. She served as first President (1996-1998), Treasurer & Membership Secretary (2004-2012), and organized the first two SEAA Worldwide Conferences in Honolulu (1996) and Durham (2000). Now officially retired, she is affiliated with the SOAS Japan Research Centre as well as the Department of History of Art & Archaeology, teaching in the Diploma in Asian Art and occasionally substituting for lecturers on leave.


List of Boxes ix List of Figures ix List of Tables xii Preface xiii Multiple editions xiii; Where is East Asia? xiv; Dating preferences xiv; Language issues xv; Note on referencing xviii; Note on indexing xviii; Acknowledgments xix 1 Orientation 1 Grounding 1 Starting from the Yellow Sea 1; Mainland geography 3; The loesslands 4; The Northern Zone 4; Westward ho! 4; Eastward bound 4; North-south divisions 5 National chronologies 6 With or without writing? 7 Prehistoric archaeology 7; Protohistoric archaeology 8; Historic archaeology 12 East Asian cultural successions 13 The Chinese sequence 13; The Korean sequence 20; The Japanese sequence 23 2 Archaeological Organization 27 Archaeology as a government endeavor 27 Japan 29; Korea 33; China 35 East Asian archaeology since 1990 38 Science and theory 39; Multiple archaeologies 40; Cooperative projects 40; Conferences 42; Journals 43 3 The Earliest Inhabitants (2,000,000-40,000 years ago) 45 The peopling of East Asia 45 The first peopling, or Out of Africa 1 48 What peoples? 48; Habitats, habits and habitation 52; Their tool kits 55 Intermediate peoples 60 The second peopling, or Out of Africa 2 60 How far east did Pleistocene hominins go, and when? 64 4 Innovations of Modern Humans (40,000-10,000 years ago) 67 Modern peoples and their accoutrements 67 Upper Palaeolithic climate and chronology 74 iv Archaeology of East Asia New lithic strategies 79 Significance of prepared-core technologies 79; Blade varieties and assemblages 81 What were they hunting? 86 A mobile lifestyle 87 Harbingers of the Neolithic 89 Edge-ground axes 89; Plant utilization 91; Coastal living 92; The invention of pottery 93 5 Earlier Holocene Subsistence Patterns (10,000-5000 years ago = 8000-3000 BC) 96 Settling down 97 Earliest villages 97; Feedback loops between food and sedentism 102 `In-between' societies 103 Exploiting Holocene forests 104 The importance of nuts 104; Timbers, houses and woodworking tools 106 Living on Holocene shores 107 Anatomy of a shellmound 107; Fish stories 110 Pen/Insular species management 111 Jomon husbandry 111; Chulmun husbandry 115 Mainland cereal growers 116 Northern millet cultures 116; Southern rice culture 117; Mainland broad-ranging subsistence 120 Food studies 121 Proportional food resources 121; Isotope analyses 123 6 The Mid-Holocene Social Mosaic (5000-2000 BC) 126 Introduction 126 The Middle Jomon phenomenon 127 A regional exchange network 127; Core villages 131 The Loesslands tradition 135 Yangshao villages 135; Loesslands pottery 141 The East Coast tradition 143 Dawenkou villages 143; East Coast ceramics 146 The Hongshan enigma 147 Dimensions of social status 149 Gender distinctions 149; Ritualists 150; Social hierarchies 153; The importance of commensality 154 Summary 155 7 Emergence and Decline of Late Neolithic Societies (3300-1900 BC) 157 Introduction 157 Periodization 157; Agriculture, monumental architecture and social stratification 160; What is a state? 161 Contents v Urbanizing settlements 162 Of walls and terraces 162; Southern powerhouse: Liangzhu site complex 163; Intermontane Taosi 165; Liangchengzhen, Eastern Longshan 167; Quick comparisons 169 Site hierarchies 169 Central Plain polity development 170 Walled settlements 170; Sacrificial interments 172; Settlement system 172 The dramatic end of the Late Neolithic 174 The opening of the steppes 176 The western and central steppes 177; From west to east 177; Establishment of the Early Metal Province 180 8 Bronze Age Beginnings (2000-850 BC) 181 Bronze Age time span 181 Bronze and agro-pastoralism 183 Qijia and Siba cultures 185; Zhukaigou 185; Lower Xiajiadian 186 Bronze and Erlitou 187 The Erlitou site (1850-1550 BC) 187; Erlitou culture and polity 191; Significance of Erlitou bronze vessels 192 The Shang bronze tradition 192 Shang bronzes 195 Southern bronze cultures 199 Lower and Middle Yangzi 199; Sichuan Basin: Sanxingdui 200 The Northern Bronze Complex 202 In conclusion 204 9 Early State Florescence (1500-770 BC) 206 Dynastic successions 206 Was Erlitou the Xia capital? 207; Early, Middle and Late Shang 207; Royal Zhou 208 Early inscriptions 209 Shang state organization 210 Shang capitals 210; The late great capital of Yinxu 214; Territorial expansion 219; Political organization 222 Royal Zhou and enfeoffments 223 Zhou in the Zhouyuan 223; Early Zhou socio-political organization 225; Yan - a royal enfeoffment 226 Early Zhou architectural contributions 226 Sacrifice and warfare 227 Sacrifice at altar and tomb 227; Of horses and chariots 228 Early state overview 229 10 Eastern Zhou and Its Frontiers (1st millennium BC) 231 Eastern Zhou (771-221 BC) 232 State autonomy 232; Warfare tactics 233 Zhou and `non-Zhou' identity formation 234 From huaxia to Han 235; Peripheral origins 236 Zhou border states 237 The eastern state of Qi 237; The southern state of Chu 237; Qin to the west 239; Jin in the northwest 240 Commercial endeavors 241 Bronzes: deterioriations and advances 241; Iron: the beginning of an industry 244; Salt 248; A cash economy 248 The Northern Zone 249 From Rong and Di to hu 249; Northern signifiers: animal art and gold 253 11 Pen/Insular Rice, Bronze and Iron (1300-200 BC) 255 Contributions from the China Mainland 256 Upper Xiajiadian 256; Yueshi culture 258 Establishing Mumun culture 258 Transmission of rice farming 259; Dolmen and cist burials 261; Final addition of bronzes to the funerary goods 262 Middle Mumun (850-550 BC) settlement and society 263 Taepyong-ri site 263; Komdan-ri site 265; Songguk-ri site 266 Late Mumun / Early Iron Age transitions (500-200 BC) 266 The Slender Bronze Dagger culture 267; Arrival of iron 269 From Jomon to Yayoi 270 Yayoi beginnings 270; Yayoi expansion 275; Craft advancements 278; Jomon resistance to wet-rice agriculture 280 12 The Making and Breaking of Empire (350 BC-500 AD) 285 Qin, the Unifier 285 Warring states reforms 285; United China 286 The Han Dynasty 289 Establishment of unified rule 289; Imperial capitals 290; Han burial innovations 293 Roads as arteries to the empire 298 Road to the west 298; Road to the south 301; Continuing northern border problems 302; Northeastern relations 305 Turmoil at the end of Han 306 Fragmentation of the empire 306; Succeeding polities 307 13 The Yellow Sea Interaction Sphere (400 BC - 300 AD) 309 Trade and tribute relations 309 Meeting the Hui and Mo 309; Han domination 309 Contents vii Northeastern horse-riders 311 Puyo in the central Manchurian Basin 311; Early Koguryo in the eastern Manchurian massif 313 The Lelang commandery 313 Commandery sites 313; Relations with Shandong and Liaodong 314; Lelang tombs 315; From Gongsun to Wei rule 316 The Samhan of the southern Korean Peninsula 317 Commandery connections 317; Ceramic advancements 320; Iron production 321; From the Three Han to the Three Kingdoms 322 Yayoi bronze cultures 323 Renewed continental connections 323; North Kyushu continental gateway 326 14 Mounded Tomb Cultures (2-5c AD) 331 Pen/Insular state formation 331 On the Peninsula 332 Koguryo and Paekche origins 332; Kaya and Silla origins 336 In the Islands 342 From mound-burials to mounded tombs 342; Daifang and Queen Himiko 346; Kofun bunka: the mounded tomb culture (MTC) of Japan 347 Early state relations 351 Warfare 351; Writing 354 New tombs and art 355 Corridor-chamber tombs 355; Mural tombs 356 Expansion of Silla and Yamato 358 Administrative incorporation by Yamato 358; Military conquest by Silla 359 15 East Asian Civilization (3-7c AD) 361 Rapid transformations 361 On the Mainland 361; In the Pen/Insulae 363 Buddhism 364 Buddhist grottoes 365; Pen/Insular Buddhism 367; Temple excavations 368 Law and administration: a Yamato case study 370 Territorial control 371 Gridded cities 371; Provincial systems 374; A new field system 377; Taxation 378 Technological developments 380 Cosmopolitan lifestyles 382 16 Epilogue: Ancient East Asia in the Modern World 384 Why study East Asian archaeology? 384 Sharing of religious philosophies 385 Friction dating to earlier times 387 The problem with Mimana 388; Keyhole tombs in Korea 388; Koguryo split between two states 389 The importance of national heritage 390

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781785700705
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 432
  • ID: 9781785700705
  • ISBN10: 1785700707

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