On February 28, 1993, the United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (BATF) launched a major assault against a small religious community in central Texas. One hundred agents, armed with automatic and semi-automatic weapons, invaded the compound, purportedly to carry out a single search-and-arrest warrant. The raid went badly; four agents were killed, and by the end of the day the settlement was surrounded by armoured tanks and combat helicopters. After a 51-day standoff, the United States Justice Department approved a plan to use CS gas against those barricaded inside. Whether by accident or plan, tanks carrying the CS gas caused the compound to explode in fire, killing all 74 men, women and children inside. Could the tragedy have been prevented? Was it necessary for the BATF agents to do what they did? What could have been done differently? This text offers a wide-ranging analysis of events surrounding Waco. Contributors seek to explore all facets of the confrontation in an attempt to understand one of the most confusing government actions in American history. The book begins with the history of the Branch Davidians and the story of its leader, David Koresh.
Chapters show how the Davidians came to trouble authorities, why the group was labelled a "cult," and how authorities used unsubstantiated allegations of child abuse to strengthen their case against the sect. The media's role is examined next in essays that consider the effect on coverage of lack of time and resources, the orchestration of public relations by government officials, the restricted access to the site or to evidence, and the ideologies of the journalists themselves. Several contributors then explore the relation of violence to religion, comparing Waco to Jonestown. Finally, the role played by "experts" and "consultants" in defining such conflicts is explored by two contributors who had active roles as scholarly experts during and after the siege. The legal and consitutional implications of the government's actions are also analyzed.
Preface Introduction: Another View of the Mt. Carmel Standoff Stuart A. Wright 1: An Age of Wisdom, An Age of Foolishness: The Davidians, Some Forerunners, and Our Age Robert S. Fogarty 2: Davidians and Branch Davidians: 1929-1987 William L. Pitts, Jr 3: The Davidian Tradition: From Patronal Clan to Prophetic Movement David G. Bromley, Edward D. Silver. 4: Construction and Escalation of a Cult Threat: Dissecting Moral Panic and Official Reaction to the Branch Davidians Stuart A. Wright 5: Self-Fulfilling Stereotypes, the Anticult Movement, and the Waco Confrontation James R. Lewis 6: "Babies Were Being Beaten": Exploring Child Abuse Allegations at Ranch Apocalypse Christopher G. Ellison, John P. Bartkowski. 7: Manufacturing Consent about Koresh: A Structural Analysis of the Role of Media in the Waco Tragedy James T. Richardson 8: Cops, News Copy, and Public Opinion: Legitimacy and the Social Construction of Evil in Waco Anson Shupe, Jeffrey K. Hadden. 9: Public Narratives and the Apocalyptic Sect: From Jonestown to Mt. Carmel John R. Hall 10: Sects and Violence: Factors Enhancing the Volatility of Marginal Religious Movements Thomas Robbins, Dick Anthony. 11: Religious Discourse and Failed Negotiations: The Dynamics of Biblical Apocalypticism in Waco James D. Tabor 12: Waco, Federal Law Enforcement, and Scholars of Religion Nancy T. Ammerman 13: Breaching the "Wall of Separation": The Balance between Religious Freedom and Social Order Rhys H. Williams 14: The Waco Tragedy: Constitutional Concerns and Policy Perspectives Edward McGlynn Gaffney, Jr 15: The Implosion of Mt. Carmel and Its Aftermath: Is It All Over Yet? Dean M. Kelley Appendix: Branch Davidians Who Died at Mt. Carmel List of Contributors Index