At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Ottoman arms industry was self-sufficient. But from the 1880s to World War I, German arms companies held a monopoly position in the Ottoman arms market. How did Germany manage to conquer what had until then been an extremely competitive market, where British, French and American firms had been dominant for years? While acknowledging the importance of economic and political factors, Arming the Sultan suggests that the main determinants of the German success cannot be ascribed only to the market theory of supply and demand, but lie instead in a range of manipulative instruments built on foundations that were formed through close personal relations. Yorulmaz's innovative book suggests that the value of these relationships has been overlooked, and ensured German success over British, French and American competition. Based on extensive multinational archival research in Germany, Turkey, Britain and the United States, Arming the Sultan explores the decisive impact of arms exports on the formation and stimulation of Germany's expansionist foreign economic policy towards the Ottoman Empire.
Making an important contribution to the field of the historiography of the political economy of the international arms trade in the case of Germany's arms sales in the Ottoman Empire, Arming the Sultan reveals that arms exports proved to be an indispensable and integral part of Germany's foreign economic policy during the period under review.
Naci Yorulmaz is Research Scholar at the Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies, University of Washington. He holds a PhD from the University of Birmingham.
Notes on Usage i Table of Contents ii List of Tables iv List of Figures vi List of Maps and Images vi List of Abbreviations vii Introduction Chapter I: The German Expansionism and the Political and Economic Foundation of the German Style of War Business in the Ottoman Empire (1880-1898) Bismarck and His Ottoman Policy: The First Step towards Peaceful Penetration Kaiser Wilhelm II and the Origin of His Ottoman Policy Kaiser Wilhelm II's First Orientreise in 1889 and its Consequences (1889) Chapter II: German Military Advisers: Businessmen in Uniform A Vital Link for the Export Dependent Armaments Industry Trojan horse for German Arms Industry: The First German Military Mission in the Ottoman Empire (1882-1885) Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz Pasha (1843-1916): A Hero for Everyone Chapter III: Arms Orders and Contracts: The First Fruits of Personal Diplomacy Coastal Fortification with Krupp Guns in 1885/1886 The Mauser Operations: Professional Teamwork Chapter IV: Kaiser Wilhelm II and The Political Economy of Personal Diplomacy (1898-1914) Kaiser Wilhelm II's Second Orientreise in 1898 as Multi-dimensional Personal Diplomacy The Concrete Outcomes of the Kaiser's Second Orientreise: Some Critical Concessions Kaiser Wilhelm II and His Contribution to the German Style of War Business Chapter V: Sultan Abdulhamid II and His Bureaucrats (1876-1914) Sultan Abdulhamid II and the Arms Trade in the Shadow of Personal Trust The Ottoman Bureaucrats: Personal Ties with the Arms Makers The Ottoman Inspection and Control Commission in Germany: Inspectors or Friends? Chapter VI: The Power Shift and its Consequences (1908-1914) The First Episode: The Old Regime and The Old Friend (1908-1909) The Second Episode: The New Regime and The Old Friend (1909-1914) Conclusion Endnotes Bibliography