Assessing Teacher Competency: Five Standards-Based Steps to Valid Measurement Using the CAATS Model

Assessing Teacher Competency: Five Standards-Based Steps to Valid Measurement Using the CAATS Model

By: Judy R. Wilkerson (author), William Steve Lang (author)Paperback

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'I have not seen anything quite as systematic as this material in guiding the reader through a process for developing a valid and reliable assessment plan. Covers all the areas one would want in designing a system for accreditation or for other purposes' - Martha Gage, Director, Teacher Education & Licensure, Kansas State Department of Education 'Realistically reveals the extent of the task of teacher certification and provides us with a structured learning experience that should improve our abilities with this task' - Pearl Solomon, Associate Professor, St. Thomas Aquinas College A complete, step-by-step guide to teacher assessments that meet national accreditation and accountability standards. Written in a reader-friendly style for busy faculty members and school administrators with little or no prior knowledge of statistics, this comprehensive model is designed to create fair, valid, and reliable assessments of teacher knowledge and skills. Evaluation experts Judy Wilkerson and Steve Lang provide detailed guidance for the complete five-step assessment process, making this an ideal resource both for preservice and inservice settings, including accreditation reviews and teacher induction programs. Offering worksheets and activities to illustrate every step of the process, this all-inclusive handbook covers: o Definitions, contextual factors, and sampling o Aligning performance tasks with standards defined by NCLB, NCATE, INTASC, and other groups o Designing and implementing data tracking and management systems o Ensuring psychometric integrity Valid and reliable decisions about teacher competency are based on fair, valid, and reliable assessment systems. Assessing Teacher Competency is the book all teacher educators, supervisors, and mentors have been waiting for.

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About Author

Judy R. Wilkerson is an Associate Professor of Research and Assessment at Florida Gulf Coast University, where she teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in measurement and evaluation. As in this book and all of her research, she focuses her efforts with students on providing a highly pragmatic approach, based in theory, with the goal of instilling a commitment in them to assess K-12 learning. Her Ph.D. is in Measurement and Research from the University of South Florida, where she served for 15 years as Director of Program Review, leading College and University efforts in accreditation. Her career has been dedicated to standards-based assessment of programs and teachers, beginning with the creation of an evaluation model for accreditation in 1987, which she implemented in several states. Beginning in 1990 for 15 years, she served as the primary consultant for higher education to the Florida Department of Education, where she drafted the standards for the initial approval of teacher education programs, designed the program approval process, and provided technical assistance to colleges of education in evaluation of teachers and programs statewide. She has consulted nationally on NCATE accreditation and worked with state associations of teacher educators on accreditation related issues. She has also consulted with school districts in Florida on assessment systems for teachers. She was lead designer of the assessment system for the Florida Alternative Certification Program, now used in over 40 of the 68 school districts in the State. William Steve Lang is a Professor of Educational Measurement and Research at the University of South Florida St. Petersburg, where he teaches graduate courses in measurement, statistics, and research. He, too, focuses his teaching on making meaningful and pragmatic uses of the disciplines he teaches. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of Georgia in 1984. He has taught as a public school teacher in South Carolina and Georgia and as a college faculty member in South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. He has published on a variety of applications in educational testing and works extensively with the Rasch Model of Item Response Theory. He began working extensively with Judy when she joined the faculty of the St. Petersburg Campus in 2001. Since that time, they have collaborated in all aspects of their research and service efforts with the Florida Department of Education, Florida school districts, and teacher education programs nationwide. They are working together to build two teacher assessment scales - one on teacher competencies, the subject of this book, and another on dispositions. Their work in both areas is standards-driven.


A Step-by-Step Guide to the CAATS Model Foreword by Richard Kunkel Preface Acknowledgments About the Authors 1. Expectations and Options for Accountability and Teacher Assessment What This Chapter Is About The Challenge from the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future Title II of the Higher Education Act Amendments of 1998 No Child Left Behind Legislation National Research Council (2001) -- the Committee on Assessment and Teacher Quality What A Few Others Have Said: A Brief Review of the Literature on Testing and Licensure Standards: The Roadmap to Accountability and Scientifically-Based Performance Assessment The Principal Sets of Standards Governing Our Work National and State Pedagogical and Content Standards Unit Accreditation and Operational Standards Technical Standards for Measurement of Teacher Competency Some Major Threats to Validity in Most Current Assessment Systems Conceptual Frameworks: Pulling It All Together NCATE Standards AERA, APA, & NCME INTASC Principles: Where NCATE and AERA, APA, & NCME Standards Converge Making Sense of Conceptual Frameworks Our Conceptual Framework: What We Value Assessment Options Records of Training Completed Tests and Exam Scores Observations of Performance Portfolios of Assessable Artifacts Job-Related Tasks and Work Sample Products K-12 Student Work Samples Wrap-Up Activity #1: What's Happening in Your State and School? Activity #2: Questionnaire for Faculty Views on Competency Assessment Activity #3: Assessment Belief Scale Activity #4: Assessment Options 2. Portfolios - To Be or Not To Be?? That IS the Question! What This Chapter Is About The Portfolio: Panacea or Pandora's Box Portfolios as Certification "Tests": Lessons from Standards and History Assessment Illiteracy, Paradigms Shifts, and Conflicting Purposes The Conflict of Formative vs. Summative Evaluation The Conflict of Program Approval vs. Accreditation The Conflict of Business or Legislative Personal/Professional Perspectives vs. Accountability Through Title II Requirements The Conflict of Academic Freedom vs. Accountability The Conflict of Constructivism vs. Positivism Recommendations for Use of Portfolios in Accountability Contexts Ten Recommendations for Assessment System Design A Recommended, Standards-Based Model Overview of "Competency Assessment Aligned with Teacher Standards" (CAATS) Model CAATS Step 1: Define content, purpose, use, and other contextual CAATS Step 2: Develop a valid sampling plan CAATS Step 3: Create or update tasks aligned with standards and CAATS Step 4: Design and implement data aggregation tracking and management systems CAATS Step 5: Ensure credibility and utility of data Wrap-Up A Note about Chapters 8 and 9 Activities Activity #1: Review Your Feelings Activity #2: Thinking about Conflicting Paradigms Activity #3: Getting Your Action Plan Started 3. CAATS Step 1: Assessment Design Inputs Where We Have Been So Far What This Chapter Is About CAATS Step 1A: Define the Purposes and Uses of the System The Importance of Purpose and Use Different Strokes for Different Folks for Different Purposes Purpose and Use in the Accountability Context More on Accountability Based Systems: State Program Approval CAATS Step 1B: Define the Propositions or Principles that Guide the System CAATS Step 1C: Define the Conceptual Framework or Contents of the System So What Is Assessment Content? Standards as the Link between Purpose, Use, and Content CAATS Step 1D: Review Local Factors That Impact the System Wrap Up Worksheets Worksheet #1: Purpose, Use, Propositions, Content, & Context Checksheet Worksheet #2: Purpose, Use, Content, Draft Worksheet #3: Propositions Worksheet #4: Contextual Analysis 4. CAATS Step 2: Planning with a Continuing Eye on Valid Assessment Decisions Where We Have Been So Far What This Chapter Is About CAATS Step 2A: Organize Standards into Content Domains All Those Standards Sets Organizing for Alignment "A Rose Is a Rose" Or More of the Same Why Bother? Crosswalks and Standards CAATS Step 2B: Visualize the Competent Teacher Based on the Standards CAATS Step 2C: Brainstorm a Set of Summative Tasks (Sampling Plan) CAATS Step 2D: Sort Tasks into Formative and Summative Assessments CAATS Step 2E: Build Assessment Frameworks Framework Options A Special Case: Aligning Tasks with NCATE Requirements Wrap-Up Worksheets Worksheet #1: Organizing for Alignment (Version 1) Worksheet #1: Organizing for Alignment (Version 2) Worksheet #2: Our Critical Skills Worksheet #3: Visualizing the Competent Teacher Worksheet #4: Critical Task List Worksheet #5: Sorting Formative and Summative Tasks Worksheet #6: List of Summative Assessments by Competency Type Worksheet #7: List of Summative Assessments by Levels of Inference Worksheet #8: List of Summative Assessments by Points in Time Worksheet #9: Matrix of Standard by Competency Type Worksheet #10: Matrix of Critical Tasks by Competency Type and Benchmark Worksheet #11: Aligning Tasks with NCATE Thematic Portfolios 5. CAATS Step 3 -- Writing Tasks Designed to Maximize Validity and Reliability Where We Have Been So Far What This Chapter Is About CAATS Step 3A: Determine the Task Format for Data Aggregation What Happens When There Is No Format? Can I Use Percents and Total Points? No, They Don't Cut It! Elements of a Common Task Format CAATS Step 3B: Create New Tasks or Modify Existing Tasks Basic Concepts about Tasks Hints and Advice about Writing Tasks Rubric Examples: A Rose is a Rose CAATS Step 3C: Conduct First Validity Study CAATS Step 3D: Align Tasks with Instruction Wrap-Up Worksheets Worksheet #1: Proficiency Level Descriptions Worksheet #2: Task Design Worksheet #3: Standards and Indicators Coverage Report Worksheet #4: Individual Task Review for Job-Relatedness Worksheet #5: Checklist for Reviewing Individual Tasks Worksheet #6: Instructional Alignment 6. CAATS Step 4: Decision-Making and Data Management Where We Have Been So Far What This Chapter Is About CAATS Step 4A: Determine How Data Will Be Aggregated So What Is Data Aggregation? The Relationship of Data Aggregation (Step 4A), Cut Scores, (Step 4B), and An Approach to Decision-Making without Using Points and Percents CAATS Step 4B: Set Standards for Minimal Competency Different Strokes for Different Folks - Deja Vu or Purpose Revisited Is 100% Really Reasonable? Criticality Yardstick Approach (CYA) to Cut Score Setting in Complex Performance Assessments First Cut Second Cut Working with Judges An Example of What to Say to the Judges CAATS Step 4C: Select and Develop a Tracking System Sharing Information for Decision-Making: The Big Challenge Data Storage Option #1: Course Grades or Records of Participation/Attendance Data Storage Option #2: Teacher Folders Data Storage Option #3: Portfolios Data Storage Option #4: Electronic Data Management System Reporting Aggregated Data CAATS Step 4D: Develop Management System Advising and Due Process Scoring Procedures Implementation Wrap-Up Worksheets Worksheet #1: Cut Score Decisions Worksheet #2: Sample Format for Candidate/Teacher Tracking Form Worksheet #3: Format for Data Aggregation Worksheet #4: Management Plan Worksheet #5: Rater Monitoring Record 7. CAATS Step 5: Credible Data Where We Have Been So Far What This Chapter Is About What Is Psychometric Integrity and Why Do We Have to Worry About It? CAATS Step 5A: Create a Plan to Provide Evidence of Validity, Reliability, Fairness, and Utility Elements of a Plan Element #1: Purpose and Use Element #2: Construct Measured Element #3: Interpretation and Reporting of Scores Element #4: Assessment Specifications and Content Map Element #5: Assessor/Rater Selection and Training Procedures Element #6: Analysis Methodology Element #7: External Review Personnel and Methodology Element #8: Evidence of Validity, Reliability, and Fairness (VRF) CAATS Step 5B: Implement the Plan Conscientiously Wrap Up Worksheets and Examples Worksheet #1: Assessment Specifications Worksheet #2: Analysis of Appropriateness of Decisions for Teacher Failures Worksheet #3: Program Improvement Record Worksheet #4: Expert Rescoring Worksheet #5: Fairness Review Worksheet #6: Analysis of Remediation Efforts and EO Impact Worksheet #7: Psychometric Plan Format Example #1 (Empirical Data): Logistic Ruler for Content Validity Example #2 (Empirical Data): Computation of the Lawshe (1975) Content Example #3 (Empirical Data): Disparate Impact Analysis Example #4 (Empirical Data): Computation of Cohen's Kappa (1960) for Example #5 (Empirical Data): Spearman Correlation Coefficient and Scatterplot: Example #6 (Empirical Data): Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Scatterplot: Example #7 (Empirical Data): Correlation Matrix and Scatterplots Knowledge, Example #8 (Empirical Data): T-Test Comparing Mathematics and Science Example #9 (Empirical Data): Differential Item and Person Functioning 8. The Trouble with Tribbles: Standard Setting for Professional Certification What This Chapter Is About An Overview of Cut Score Setting From Norm-Referenced Objective Tests to Criterion-Referenced Subjective Tasks Controlling Human Judgment Difficulty vs. Importance Social Consequences Tidbits to Remember Cut Scores Setting in Traditional, Objective Tests Holistic Impressions: Method One Item Content: Method Two Performance of Examinees: Method Three Combination Approach: Method Four Standard or Cut Score Setting in Performance Tests for Professionals: Is it the Same as Multiple Choice? Quotes to Remember The Extended Angoff Procedure for Performance Assessment The Judgmental Policy Capturing Approach for Performance Assessment The Dominant Profile Judgment for Performance Assessment Standard Setting Using Item Response Theory What's Really Wrong with Current Approaches to Cut Score Setting Berk's Suggestions and Commentaries Over the Years The Criticality Yardstick Approach Wrap Up Activities Activity #1: Change the Difficulty of an Item Activity #2: Change the Criticality of a Task Activity #3: Replicate a Cut Score Activity #4: Take Your Choice 9. Using Teacher Scores for Continuous Improvement What This Chapter is About Reasons Why We Use the Rasch Model The Classical Approach A Quick Overview of Where Rasch Fits Into the Grand Scheme of IRT Models Rasch: The Basics Getting Started Differences that Item Writers Make Guttman Scaling A Sample Rasch Ruler From Pictures to Numbers The Fit Statistic Gain Scores - Real or Imagined? Ratings and Raters Learning More about Rasch Wrap Up Activities Activity #1: Decision Making Tool for Measurement 10. Legal Integrity What IF?? A Legal Scenario Psychometric Issues and Legal Challenges Legal Issues and Precedents End Note Appendix: Tasks Developed for Florida Alternative Certification Program Glossary References Index

Product Details

  • publication date: 31/01/2007
  • ISBN13: 9781412941204
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 408
  • ID: 9781412941204
  • weight: 1120
  • ISBN10: 1412941202

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