This volume offers new insights into the assessment of the language of Young Learners (YLs). YLs are defined here as being from 5 to 17 years, and are treated as three distinct subgroups: younger children (5/6 to 8/9 years), older children (8/9 to 12/13 years) and teenagers (12/13 to 17 years).The first half addresses fundamental issues, beginning with the characteristics of YLs and how these are manifested in first language development. The authors consider the potential ability of each age group to perform in a second or foreign language, proposing a rough age-related correspondence with CEFR levels. Finally, principles of assessment, specifically formative assessment and testing, are presented in the light of linguistic, cognitive and social development.The second half focusses on testing a range of 'skills'. Theoretical models of performance are introduced, followed by a practical analysis of approaches to the testing of each skill for the three age groups, illustrated with examples. The authors conclude by summing up developmental characteristics of each age group, and their implications for language testing.The book is intended for a wide readership within the field of teaching and assessing the language of young learners.
Researchers are offered scope for further investigation of what emerges from the discussion, while practitioners will hopefully find support in their day-to-day work with YLs.
Angela Hasselgreen is Professor of Language Didactics at the University of Bergen.Gwendydd Caudwell is Aptis Product Development Manager for the British Council based in Dubai.
IntroductionChapter 1: Children and Teenagers: Developmental IssuesChapter 2: The L2 of Young LearnersChapter 3: The Common European Framework of ReferenceChapter 4: Assessing the L2 of Young LearnersChapter 5: Testing ReadingChapter 6: Testing WritingChapter 7: Testing SpeakingChapter 8: Testing Listening Chapter 9: Testing Vocabulary and Grammar Chapter 10: Conclusion Appendix A: An Overview of Nippold's Findings on L1 Development at Ages 5, 10, 15 and 25 Years Appendix B.1: AYLLIT Scale of Descriptors Appendix B.2: The Aptis for Teens Scales for Assessing the Writing of Teenagers Appendix B.3: The Aptis for Teens Scales for Assessing the Speaking of Teenagers Appendix C.1: Click and Drag Item - Norwegian National Testing of English (NNTE) (Reading, 5th Grade) Appendix C.2: Click and Drag Item - Norwegian National Testing of English (NNTE) (Reading, 5th Grade) Appendix C.3: Aptis for Teens B1 Reading Appendix C.4: Aptis for Teens B2 Reading Appendix C.5: Teens Writing Tasks Sample Item Appendix C.6: Aptis General (Adults) B2 Speaking (Long-turn) Appendix C.7: Aptis for Teens B2 Speaking (Long-turn)