The Oxford Archaeological Unit carried out excavations at the Roman `small town' of Asthall, in advance of the construction of a Thames Water pipeline. The excavation located the axial Roman road through the settlement and a complex sequence of timber and stone structures which fronted onto the road were partially revealed. These buildings range in date from the mid 1st century AD through to the 4th century. Closer to the settlement margin an ironworking area and a later enclosure containing a small late Roman cemetery were examined. This report describes these excavations and discusses the artefacts including coins and ironwork and pottery. Chapters also discuss the burials, animal bones and environmental remains.