Michael Martin is Professor of Philosophy at Boston University and author of several books, including The Legal Philosophy of H.L.A. Hart: A Critical Appraisal and The Case Against Christianity (both from Temple).
Preface Introduction The Scope of Nonbelief * A Brief Defense of Atheism Against Some Common Criticisms * Purpose Part I: Negative Atheism 1. The Justification of Negative Atheism: Some Preliminaries A Presumption of Atheism * The Ethics of Belief * The Evil Demon and Objectivist Epistemology * Conclusion 2. The Meaningfulness of Religious Language Overview of the Problem * Incoherence and Meaninglessness * Nielsen's Critique of God Talk * Swinburne's Defense * The Choice of an Observational Language * Attempts to Show the Confirmability of Theological Statements * Conclusion 3. The Ontological Argument Anselm's Ontological Argument * Malcolm's Ontological Argument * Hartshorne's Ontological Argument * Kordig's Ontological Argument * Plantinga's Ontological Argument * Conclusion 4. The Cosmological Argument Traditional Deductive Cosmological Arguments * Three Contemporary Defenses of the Cosmological Argument * General Conclusion 5. The Teleological Argument Background lo the Teleological Argument * Tennant 's Cosmic Teleology * Schlesinger's Teleological Argument * Swinburne's Teleological Argument * Taylor's Teleological Argument * General Conclusion 6. The Argument from Religious Experience Religious Experience Defined * Types of Religious Experience * Mystical Experience * Swinburne's Principle of Credulity and Religious Experience * Conclusion 7. The Argument from Miracles The Argument in General * The Concept of Miracles * The Probability That God Exists, Given the Existence of Miracles * Naturalism versus Supernaturalism and the Existence of Miracles * The Difficulty of Showing the Existence of Miracles * Evidence of Miracles in One Religion as Evidence Against Contrary Religions * Miracles at Lourdes * Indirect Miracles * Conclusion 8. Some Minor Evidential Arguments for God The Argument from Common Consent * The Moral Argument * The Argument from Reward * The Argument from Justice * Arguments from Scripture * The Argument from Consciousness * The Argument from Providence * The Argument from Cumulative Evidence 9. Beneficial Arguments for God Pascal's Argument * William James and the Will to Believe * Conclusion 10. Faith and Foundationalism A Traditional Concept of Religious Faith * Existential Faith * Wittgensteinian Fideism * Are Avowals of Religious Faith True or False? * Could an Atheist Have Faith in God? * Religious Beliefs and Basic Beliefs * Conclusion Part II: Positive Atheism 11. The Justification of Positive Atheism: Some Preliminaries The Justification of Negative Atheism as a Justification for Positive Atheism * The Strength of the Case Needed for A Posteriori Arguments * The A Priori Arguments and the Possibility of Rebuttal 12. Divine Attributes and Incoherence Omniscience * Divine Freedom * Omnipotence * Conclusion 13. Atheistic Teleological Arguments Salmon 's Argument * Expansion of the Argument * The Universe as a Created Object * Conclusion 14. The Argument from Evil A Direct Inductive Argument from Evil * An Indirect Inductive Argument from Evil * Criticisms of a Probabilistic Argument from Evil * Conclusion 15. The Free Will Defense Background * The Justification in General * The Assumption of the Importance of Freedom * Free Will und Contracausal Freedom * Contracausal Freedom and Statistical Laws * Compatibilism and World Preference * Free Will and Evil * Possible Worlds and God's Ignorance * The Responsibility of God * Is the Free Will Defense Relevant to the Problem of Moral Evil? * Conclusion 16. Natural Evil Three Contemporary Attempts to Solve the Problem of Natural Evil * Conclusion 17. Soul Making Theodicy Some General Problems with the Soul Making Defense * Hick's Soul Making Theodicy Explained * Hick's Soul Making Theodicy Evaluated 18. Some Minor Theodicies The Finite God Theodicy * The Best of All Possible Worlds Theodicy * The Original Sin Theodicy * The Ultimate Harmony Theodicy * The Degree of Desirability of a Conscious State Theodicy * The Reincarnation Theodicy * The Contrast Theodicy * The Warning Theodicy * Conclusion Conclusion Appendix: Atheism Defined and Contrasted Atheism Defined * Atheism Distinguished and Contrasted * Conclusion Notes Index