Chest sonography is an established procedure in the stepwise imaging diagnosis of pulmonary and pleural disease. It is the method of choice to distinguish between solid and liquid lesions and allows the investigator to make an unequivocal diagnosis without exposing the patient to costly and stressful procedures. This book presents the state of the art in chest investigation by means of ultrasonography. A number of excellent illustrations and the compact text provide concise and easy-to-assimilate information about the diagnostic procedure. Basic elements such as indications, investigation techniques and image artifacts are detailed in separate chapters.
Indications, technical prerequisites, and investigation procedure.- The chest wall: Soft-part lesions. Lymph nodes. Lesions of the bony chest.- The pleura: Normal pleura. Pleural effusion. Solid pleural changes. The diaphragm.- Peripheral lung consolidation: Inflammatory consolidations in the lung - pneumonia. Neoplastic consolidations in the lung - primary lung tumors and metastases. Vascular lung consolidations - pulmonary embolism and pulmonary infarction. Mechanical lung consolidations - atelactasis. Congenital pulmonary sequestration.- Mediastinum: Mediastinum - transthoracic. Mediastinum - transesophageal.- Endobronchial Ultrasound: Instruments and technique. Sonographic anatomy. Results of clinical application.- The white hemithorax: Predominantly liquid space-occupying mass. Predominantly solid space-occupying mass.- Image artifacts and pitfalls: Imaging of marginal surfaces of the pleura and the diaphragm. B-mode artifacts. Color doppler artifacts and pitfalls in the thorax.- Interventional chest sonography: Ultrasound- or computed tomography-guided puncture. Apparatus, instruments, and puncture technique. Indications. Risks.- Stepwise diagnostic imaging procedures in pneumology: Chest pain. Pleural disease. Pneumonia. Diffuse pulmonary disease. The circular focus. Bronchial carcinoma. Search for metastases in the lung and pleura.