Weeds are variously defined as plants growing where they are not wanted, plants that interfere with human activity. Weeds affect everyone in the world by reducing crop yield and quality, delaying or interfering with harvesting, interfering with animal feeding, reducing animal health, preventing water flow, as plant parasites, etc. It is estimated that those problems cause $ billions worth of crop losses annually and the global cost of controlling weeds also runs into many $ billions every year. Atlas of Weed Mapping presents an introductory overview on the occurrence of the most common weeds of the world.
The book notably includes: * Description of cropping practices and explanations for the global distribution of weeds * Invasive plant mapping * Aquatics and wetland plants with histological plant details * Theoretical and practical aspects of weed mapping * Aspects on the documentation of herbicide resistance * Biodiversity, rare weeds and the dominance of the most common weeds Fully illustrated with more than 800 coloured figures and a number of tables, this new characterisation of anthropogenic vegetation will be interesting for readers of a great number of disciplines such as agriculture, botany, ecology, geobotany and plant community research. More than a hundred experts have contributed data to this unique compilation.
Hansjoerg Kraehmer, now retired, was President of the European Weed Research Society between 2010 and 2012. He was also Head of Herbicide Profiling and Support, at Bayer Crop Science in Frankfurt, Germany.
Contributors, vii Acknowledgements, ix Introduction 1 Part I: Continental views of weed infestation maps Hansjorg Krahmer 1 Europe 7 Hansjorg Krahmer 2 Asia 23 Hansjorg Krahmer 3 North America 47 Hansjorg Krahmer 4 South America 56 Hansjorg Krahmer 5 Africa 71 Hansjorg Krahmer 6 Australia 81 Hansjorg Krahmer Part II: Special crop view and mapping of cotton weeds 7 Cotton cultivation 87 Garifalia Economou, Ahmet Uludag and Hansjorg Krahmer 8 Global cotton weed distribution 90 Garifalia Economou, Ahmet Uludag and Hansjorg Krahmer 9 Farming practices and weed infestation 101 Garifalia Economou, Ahmet Uludag and Hansjorg Krahmer 10 Summary of global cotton weed distribution 102 Garifalia Economou, Ahmet Uludag and Hansjorg Krahmer Part III: Invasive weed species 11 Overview of selected problems 105 Hansjorg Krahmer Part IV: Global zones with similar weed infestation 12 Introduction to global zones with similar weed infestation 115 Hansjorg Krahmer 13 Cereal weed belts 117 Hansjorg Krahmer 14 Maize weed belts and areas of similar weed infestation 120 Hansjorg Krahmer 15 Soybean weed zones and areas 123 Hansjorg Krahmer 16 Rice weed belts 124 Hansjorg Krahmer Part V: General observations on all infested sites 17 Ranks and number of weed species in a defined crop 129 Hansjorg Krahmer 18 Specialization of weeds and biodiversity 130 Hansjorg Krahmer Part VI: Answers to key questions: What makes which weed grow where and when? 19 Weeds as crop companions 135 Hansjorg Krahmer 20 Can we associate weeds with specific environmental conditions? 139 Hansjorg Krahmer 21 What makes weeds grow in monocultures, what makes them compete with the crop and with other weeds? 161 Hansjorg Krahmer Part VII: Aesthetics, rare weeds and production objectives in agriculture 22 Rare weeds in arable crops and aesthetics: harmony or hunger? 169 Hansjorg Krahmer Part VIII: Weeds in meadows, pastures and rangeland 23 Overview of grassland 177 Hansjorg Krahmer Part IX: Aquatic and wetland weeds 24 Introduction 185 Hansjorg Krahmer 25 Morphological adaptation to water 192 Hansjorg Krahmer 26 Aerenchyma within the stem 194 Hansjorg Krahmer 27 Stem and vascular bundle modifications 215 Hansjorg Krahmer 28 The root 277 Hansjorg Krahmer 29 The leaf 311 Hansjorg Krahmer 30 Vegetative propagation 371 Hansjorg Krahmer 31 Aesthetics, species attractiveness and rare aquatic species 377 Hansjorg Krahmer 32 Growing conditions of aquatic plants 382 Hansjorg Krahmer 33 Dominance and noxious effects of selected aquatic and wetland species 384 Hansjorg Krahmer 34 Adaptation of terrestrial weeds to water stress: Waterlogging and temporary hypoxia 391 Hansjorg Krahmer 35 Weeds in rice 396 Hansjorg Krahmer Part X: Which ecological rules described in textbooks will help us to understand the unevenness of weed species distribution? 36 Asymmetric competition within arable crops 401 Hansjorg Krahmer 37 Comparison of closely related species and their ability to grow as weeds in crops 404 Hansjorg Krahmer Part XI: Factors contributing to the temporal and spatial distribution of weed resistance: a map-based analysis 38 How has Alopecurus myosuroides resistance changed over the years? 409 Martin Hess, Johannes Herrmann, Hansjorg Krahmer and Roland Beffa 39 Weeds to watch 420 Hansjorg Krahmer Part XII: Conflict between the dominance of some weeds and the intention to preserve rare species 40 Can we shape nature into what we want it to be? 425 Hansjorg Krahmer Part XIII: Weed data collection, analysis and presentation of results 41 Introduction to weed mapping methodology 429 Michaela Kola ova and Pavel Hamouz 42 Data collection 430 Michaela Kola ova and Pavel Hamouz 43 Approaches to the analysis of weed distribution 440 Michaela Kola ova and Pavel Hamouz 44 Presentation of weed mapping results 456 Michaela Kola ova and Pavel Hamouz Appendix 462 Index 467