Answers at your fingertips This hands-on guide will help you trouble-shoot and solve electrical problems in industrial and commercial settings. You'll find plain-English explanations for a wide range of electrical equipment and systems, from transformers and switchgears to alarm and wiring systems. Use this book to quickly access reliable information and improve your on-the-job skills. * Get useful rules of thumb and quick tricks * Discover formulas, charts, and tables essential for plant electrical work * Locate technical data quickly and get up to speed on everyday electrical questions * Packed with illustrations that help you grasp ideas quickly and easily
L. W. BRITTIAN is a licensed electrician with extensive experience in heavy industry such as refineries, petrochemical plants, and oil and gas production. He has authored numerous training materials for the electrical trades, taught at Texas A&M University and Texas State Technical College, and presented electrical training classes in Africa, Canada, Malaysia, and the United States.
Introduction xiii Disclaimer xv Chapter 1 The Laws That Control and Explain Electricity 1 Power Factor 3 Three-Phase Power 6 Circuit Protective Devices 9 Chapter 2 Power Generation and Distribution Within Commercial and Industrial Facilities 11 Electrical Power Generators 17 Total Loads Served 17 Types of Onsite Power Generation 18 Chapter 3 Power, Control, and Lighting Transformer 21 Electrical Power 24 Insulation Material Temperature Rise 25 Grounding 26 Terminal Connection Markings 26 Three-Phase, Oil Cooled Power Transformers 26 Three-Phase Dry-Type Transformers 28 Dry-Type Single-Phase Control Circuit Transformers 29 Chapter 4 Electrical Switchgear 31 Motor Control Center 31 Primary Functions of Switchgear 32 Low-Voltage Power Distribution 33 Bus Bar and Circuit Breaker Arrangements 34 Optional Protective Devices 37 Metal-Clad Switchgear 38 Continuous Current Ratings 38 Arc-Resistant Switchgear 39 Chapter 5 Electrical Circuit Protective Devices 41 Molded Case Circuit Breakers 43 Miniature Circuit Breakers 45 Vacuum Circuit Breakers 45 Insulated Case Circuit Breakers 47 Low-voltage Power Circuit Breakers 47 Supplemental Protectors 47 Motor Circuit Protectors 47 Oil Circuit Breakers 48 Gas Insulated Circuit Breakers 48 Fuses 48 Circuit Breaker Maintenance 50 Coordination Between Protective Devices 51 Chapter 6 Personnel Protective Devices 53 Introduction 53 Ground Fault Protection of Equipment 56 History and Nomenclature of GFCIs in the United States 56 Troubleshooting GFCIs 57 Time and Current Levels Protected by Circuit Breakers 58 Arc Fault Circuit Interrupters 59 Chapter 7 Three-Phase Motors 61 Electric Motor Principles of Operation 62 Rated Full Load Speed 66 Service Factor 67 Rated Ambient Temperature 67 Stator Winding Insulation Classes 68 Types of Torque Produced by a Motor 68 Chapter 8 Controlling and Protecting Three-Phase Motors 71 Components of a Motor Starter 71 Motor Starter Sizes 72 Methods of Starting Three-Phase Induction Motors 73 Full Voltage, Across the Line Motor Starters 73 How a Motor Starter Operates 73 Three-Wire Control Circuit Controlling a Three-Phase Motor Starter 76 Sizing of Overload Heater Elements 77 Chapter 9 Variable Frequency Drives 79 Four-Quadrant Operation 80 Torque 80 Parts of a Drive 82 Pulse Width Modulation 84 Six-Step Method of Drive Control 84 Programming Drives 85 Chapter 10 Programmable Logic Controllers 89 Black Box Concept 89 PLC Sizes 92 PLC Construction 92 Types of Inputs and Outputs 92 Timers 95 Counters 96 Benefits of Using PLCs 96 I/Os and Memory Addresses 97 Chapter 11 Electrical Services 99 Metering Equipment 101 Grounding of Electrical Systems 101 Bonding versus Grounding 103 Fault Current Path, Conduits, and Locknuts 103 Low and High Impedance Grounded Systems 104 Ungrounded Electrical Systems 104 Second Ground Fault 106 Separation of the Grounded System Conductor (Neutral) and the Equipment Grounding Conductor 106 What Conductors Must Be Grounded 107 Separately Derived Systems 108 Standard Voltages 108 Chapter 12 Electrical Light Fixtures 111 Applications for Light Fixtures 112 Design of Lighting Systems 112 Major Types of Lamps Used in Commercial and Industrial Facilities 113 Light Fixture Performance 113 Pattern of Illuminance 114 Types of Glare 116 Illuminating Engineers Society 116 Lamp Selection Parameters 116 Light Fixture Operating Controls 117 Photocells 117 Incandescent Lamps 117 Gas Discharge Lamps 118 Fluorescent Lamps 119 Fluorescent Ballast 119 High-Intensity Discharge Lamps 120 Mercury Vapor Lamps 120 Metal Halide Lamps 120 High-Pressure Sodium Lamps 121 Types of HID Ballasts 121 What Ballasts Do 121 Ballast Voltage Ratings 122 Ballast Wiring Diagrams 122 Chapter 13 Electrical Timers 123 Sections of a Timer 123 Five Common Modes, or Functions, of Timers 125 Nine Types of Timer Operating Principles 126 Timing Chart Levels 129 Complete Timing Charts 133 Chapter 14 Electrical Diagrams 135 Electrical Ladder Diagrams 135 Elements in Electrical Circuits 135 One-Line Diagrams 142 Chapter 15 Electrical Test Instruments 145 Words Used with Meters 145 Multimeters 146 Auto Ranging Meters 147 Three-Step Method 148 Auto Function Features 148 Ohmmeters 149 Meg-Ohmmeter 151 Clamp-On Amp Meters 151 Chapter 16 Electrical Troubleshooting 153 Introduction to Troubleshooting 153 Not Where It Is, but Where It Was Lost 154 Safety First 155 What Tools Are Needed 156 Cause verses Effect 158 A Six-Step Method 158 Chapter 17 Access, Fire, and Burglar Alarm Systems 163 Facilities Access Control 163 Fire Alarm Systems 164 Alarm Signals 165 System Monitoring 166 Human Machine Interfaces 167 Notification Circuit Voltage Drop 169 Mass Notification Systems 169 Conductors for Fire Alarm Systems 170 Chapter 18 Computer Voice and Data Wiring Systems 171 Introduction 171 Hot Swapping Computer Signal Cables 171 Connecting a Desktop Computer as an Island 172 Connecting a Desktop Computer to a Wired Network 183 Connecting a Desktop Computer to a Wireless Network 184 Types of Computer Networks 186 Telephone Voice Communications Systems Wiring 187 Chapter 19 Reference Material 189 Amperage-Current 189 Capacitance Formulas 192 Conductor Cross-Sectional Area in Circular Mils (CMIL) 193 Direct Current Formulas 193 Fuse Opening Time 196 Heat Produced in a Conductor per Watt 197 Impedance Formulas 197 Impedance of a Conductor in a Conduit 198 kW to Amps 199 kVA to Amps 199 Motor Formulas for Three-Phase AC Motors 199 Motor Formulas 201 Transformer Formulas 213 Requirements of the Driven Load 235 Three Phase Motor Reference Material 343 Index 353