Today, audiovisual archives and libraries have become very popular especially in the field of collecting, preserving and transmitting cultural heritage. However, the data in these archives or libraries - videos, images, soundtracks, etc. - constitute as such only potential cognitive resources for a given public (or target community ). One of the most crucial issues of digital audiovisual libraries is indeed to enable users to actively appropriate audiovisual resources for their own concern (in research, education or any other professional or non-professional context). This means, an adaptation of the audiovisual data to the specific needs of a user or user group can be represented by small and closed "communities" as well as by networks of open communities around the globe. "Active appropriation" is, basically speaking, the use of existing digital audiovisual resources by users or user communities according to their expectations, needs, interests or desires.
This process presupposes: 1) the definition and development of models or "scenarios" of cognitive processing of videos by the user; 2) the availability of tools necessary for defining, developing, reusing and sharing meta-linguistic resources such as thesauruses, ontologies or description models by users or user communities. Both aspects are central to the so-called semiotic turn in dealing with digital (audiovisual) texts, corpora of texts or again entire (audiovisual) archives and libraries. They demonstrate practically and theoretically the well-known from data to metadata or from (simple) information to (relevant) knowledge problem, which obviously directly influences the effective use, social impact and relevancy, and therefore also the future, of digital knowledge archives. This book offers a systematic, comprehensive approach to these questions from a theoretical as well as practical point of view. Contents Part 1. The Practical, Technical and Theoretical Context 1. Analysis of an Audiovisual Resource. 2. The Audiovisual Semiotic Workshop (ASW) Studio A Brief Presentation. 3. A Concrete Example of a Model for Describing Audiovisual Content. 4.
Model of Description and Task of Analysis. Part 2. Tasks in Analyzing an Audiovisual Corpus 5. The Analytical Task of Describing the Knowledge Object . 6. The Analytical Task of Contextualizing the Domain of Knowledge . 7. The Analytical Task of Analyzing the Discourse Production around a Subject . Part 3. Procedures of Description 8. Definition of the Domain of Knowledge and Configuration of the Topical Structure. 9. The Procedure of Free Description of an Audiovisual Corpus. 10. The Procedure of Controlled Description of an Audiovisual Corpus. Part 4. The ASW System of Metalinguistic Resources 11. An Overview of the ASW Metalinguistic Resources. 12. The Meta-lexicon Representing the ASW Universe of Discourse.
Peter Stockinger is full Professor at the National Institute of Oriental Languages and Civilisations (INALCO) in Paris; and Research Director of ESCoM (Cognitive Semiotics and New Media Research Lab) of the Fondation Maison des Sciences de l'Homme (FMSH) in Paris, France.
Preface xi PART 1. THE PRACTICAL, TECHNICAL AND THEORETICAL CONTEXT 1 Chapter 1. Analysis of an Audiovisual Resource 3 1.1. Introduction 3 1.2. Functionally different corpora 4 1.3. Descriptive models 10 1.4. On the activity of analysis of audiovisual corpora 12 1.5. On the activity of indexation 14 1.6. Some reflections on the subject of the theoretical reference framework 15 Chapter 2. The Audiovisual Semiotic Workshop (ASW) Studio A Brief Presentation 23 2.1. A working environment for analyzing corpora of audiovisual texts 23 2.2. Brief presentation of the ASW Description Workshop 27 2.3 Four approaches to analyzing an audiovisual text 33 2.4. Models of description and interactive working forms 36 Chapter 3. A Concrete Example of a Model for Describing Audiovisual Content 39 3.1. Introduction 39 3.2. Selecting the appropriate model from the library of descriptive models of description of audiovisual content 40 3.3. The sequences in a model of content description 43 3.4. Field of description and sequential organization of an analytical form 46 3.5. The level of schemas of definition and procedures of description 48 Chapter 4. Model of Description and Task of Analysis 51 4.1. Introduction 51 4.2. The structural organization of a model of audiovisual content description 52 4.3. The canonic syntagmatic order of a form of description 54 4.4. Types of analysis, analytical tasks, procedures of description and activities of description 58 4.5. Particular tasks in analyzing the content of an audiovisual corpus 61 4.6. Concluding remarks 63 PART 2. TASKS IN ANALYZING AN AUDIOVISUAL CORPUS 65 Chapter 5. The Analytical Task of Describing the Knowledge Object 67 5.1. Introduction 67 5.2. A simple example of referential description 68 5.3. Thematic structure, topical structure and referential objects 70 5.4. A library of sequences for referential description 73 5.5. Alternative functional architectures to define sequences of referential description 76 Chapter 6. The Analytical Task of Contextualizing the Domain of Knowledge 81 6.1. Introduction 81 6.2. Contextualization by spatial location 82 6.3. Location and contextualization by country 84 6.4. Geographical-physical location and contextualization 88 6.5. Contextualization by temporal location 93 6.6. Contextualization by historical era 96 6.7. Historical contextualization and periodization 101 6.8. Thematic contextualization 102 Chapter 7. The Analytical Task of Analyzing the Discourse Production around a Subject 107 7.1. Introduction 107 7.2. Procedures of discourse production 108 7.3. Anatomy of the description of discourse production around a subject 113 7.4. Examples illustrating analysis of discourse production 116 7.5. Textual and discursive assessment 120 PART 3. PROCEDURES OF DESCRIPTION 123 Chapter 8. Definition of the Domain of Knowledge and Configuration of the Topical Structure 125 8.1. Introduction 125 8.2. Some reminders and specifications 126 8.3. (Re-) configuring and adapting an existing topical structure 130 8.4. (Re-) configuring more complex topical structures 133 Chapter 9. The Procedure of Free Description of an Audiovisual Corpus 139 9.1. Introduction 139 9.2. Organization of the so-called free description procedure 140 9.3. The descriptive activity [Minimal designation] 143 9.4. The descriptive activity [Contextualized designation] 146 9.5. The activities of [Drafting of a summary presentation] and [Designation of the referent in the original language] 149 9.6. The descriptive activity [Designation of the referent by keywords] 150 9.7. Pragmatic and onomasiological variants of the activity of [Minimal designation] 153 Chapter 10. The Procedure of Controlled Description of an Audiovisual Corpus 155 10.1. Introduction 155 10.2. Organization of the procedure called controlled description 156 10.3. Working with several micro-thesauruses 159 10.4. Selecting, classifying and ranking terms using a micro-thesaurus 161 10.5. An approach combining controlled and free description 163 PART 4. THE ASW SYSTEM OF METALINGUISTIC RESOURCES 167 Chapter 11. An Overview of the ASW Metalinguistic Resources 169 11.1. Introduction 169 11.2. General overview of the ASW system of metalinguistic resources 170 11.3. The ASW meta-lexicon of conceptual terms 174 11.4. The ASW thesaurus 177 11.5. The schemas of definition 180 11.6. The sequences of description 184 11.7. Resources external to the ASW system 187 11.8. ASW Modeling Workshop 190 Chapter 12. The Meta-lexicon Representing the ASW Universe of Discourse 197 12.1. Introduction 197 12.2. Conceptual term and theme a few explanations 198 12.3. The definitional structure of a topic 200 12.4. The ASW universe of discourse 202 12.5. The general organization of the vocabulary relating to analytical objects in the ASW universe of discourse 206 12.6. Questions relating to the organization of the ASW vocabulary of conceptual terms representing analytical objects 210 12.7. The process of developing the ASW vocabulary of conceptual terms defining analytical objects 214 Chapter 13. Detailed Presentation of the Conceptual Vocabulary [Object of analysis] 217 13.1. Introduction 217 13.2. The two branches [Natural object] and [Object of value] 218 13.3. Questions of organization of the ASW meta-lexicon 221 13.4. How are we to take account of different classifications? 226 13.5. The conceptual domain represented by the term [Functional material object] 229 13.6. The conceptual domain represented by the term [Social object] 233 13.7. The conceptual domain represented by the term [Cultural object] 235 13.8. Taxonomic domains belonging to the branch [Primary symbolic object] 238 13.9. Taxonomic domains belonging to the branch [Secondary symbolic object] 242 13.10. The taxonomic domains of the branch [Object Perdurant ] 245 13.11. The taxonomic domains of the branch [Object Region ] 248 Chapter 14. The Meta-lexicon of Activities Involved in Analyzing the Textual Object 251 14.1 Introduction 251 14.2. Four categories of textual analysis activities 252 14.3. The class of activities [Procedure of structural analysis of the textual object] 255 14.4. The class of activities [Procedure of analysis of the textual object using the ASW thesaurus] 259 14.5. The class of activities [Procedure of analysis using an ASW external reference] 260 14.6. The class of activities [Procedure of pragmatic analysis of the textual object] 264 14.7. Activity of analysis and schemas of indexation 265 14.8. The library of schemas of indexing 268 Chapter 15. The ASW Thesaurus 273 15.1. Introduction 273 15.2. General presentation of the ASW thesaurus 274 15.3. Facets and lists of standardized expressions 277 Chapter 16. The Configurational Building Blocks of Models of Description 281 16.1. Introduction 281 16.2. Analysis of an audiovisual text and models of description 282 16.3. The library of sequences making up the model of thematic description 284 16.4. Definition and insertion of a sequence into a model of description 289 16.5. Summary presentation of a library of schemas of definition 292 Conclusion and Perspectives 297 Bibliography 301 Glossary of Specialized Terms 307 Glossary of Acronyms 337 Index 349