"Audiovisual Translation: Subtitling" is an introductory textbook which provides a solid overview of the world of subtitling. Based on sound research and first-hand experience in the field, the book focuses on generally accepted practice but identifies current points of contention, takes regional and medium-bound variants into consideration, and traces new developments that may have an influence on the evolution of the profession. The individual chapters cover the rules of good subtitling practice, the linguistic and semiotic dimensions of subtitling, the professional environment, technical considerations, and key concepts and conventions, providing access to the core skills and knowledge needed to subtitle for television, cinema and DVD. Also included are graded exercises covering core skills. "Audiovisual Translation: Subtitling" can be used by teachers and students as a coursebook for the classroom or for self-learning.It is also aimed at translators and other language professionals wishing to expand their sphere of activity.
While the working language of the book is English, an accompanying DVD contains sample film material in Dutch, English, French, Italian and Spanish, as well as a range of dialogue lists and a key to some of the exercises. The DVD also includes WinCAPS, SysMedia's professional subtitling preparation software package, used for broadcast television around the world and for many of the latest multinational DVD releases of major Hollywood projects.
Jorge Diaz Cintas is Principal Lecturer in Translation and Spanish at Roehampton University, London. He is author of "La traduccion audiovisual: el subtitulado" (2001) and "Teoria y practica de la subtitulacion: ingles-espanol" (2003), a member of the Transmedia research group, and President of the European Association for Studies in Screen Translation since 2002. Aline Remael is Lecturer of English, Translation Theory and Audiovisual Translation at the Hogeschool Antwerpen and the University of Antwerp, is involved in the subtitling of three annual film festivals at Antwerp and Brussels, and supervises research projects in intralingual subtitling and audio description. She is co-editor of "Language and Beyond. Actuality and Virtuality in the Relations between Word, Image and Sound" (1998), Chief Editor of the translation journal "Linguistica Antverpiensia NS", and a member of the Transmedia research group.
Contents Acknowledgements The structure of Audiovisual Translation: Subtitling The book The DVD WinCAPS 1. Introduction to Subtitling 1.0 Preliminary discussion 1.1 Definition 1.2 Translation or adaptation? Audiovisual Translation (AVT) 1.3 Classification of subtitles 1.3.1 Linguistic parameters 1.3.2 Time available for preparation 1.3.3 Technical parameters 1.3.4 Methods of projecting subtitles 1.3.5 Distribution format 1.4 Surtitles 1.5 Intertitles 1.6 Fansubs 1.7 Discussion points 2. The Professional Environment 2.0 Preliminary discussion 2.1 The subtitling process 2.2 The professionals 2.3 The working conditions 2.3.1 Clients and rates 2.3.2 Globalization 2.3.3 Deadlines 2.3.4 Subtitlers' visibility and professional associations 2.3.5 Training 2.4 Discussion points 3. The Semiotics of Subtitling 3.0 Preliminary discussion 3.1 The film as text 3.1.1 The complexity of the filmic sign system 3.1.2 The semiotics of screenwriting and film dialogue 3.2 Subtitling and images 3.2.1 Semiotic cohesion 3.2.2 The multimodality of language 3.2.3 Camera movement and editing 3.2.4 A blessing in disguise 3.3 Subtitling, soundtrack, and text on screen 3.3.1 Subtitling's vulnerability 3.3.2 Multilingual films 3.3.3 Text on screen 3.4 Change of medium 3.4.1 Speech to writing: a matter of compromise 3.5 Discussion points 3.6 Exercises 4. Technical Considerations 4.0 Preliminary discussion 4.1 Subtitling programs 4.2 Feet and frames 4.3 Dialogue lists 4.4 Style guides 4.5 Code of good subtitling practice 4.6 Spatial dimension 4.6.1 Maximum number of lines and position on the screen 4.6.2 Font type and number of characters per line 4.6.3 One-liners and two-liners 4.6.4 Centred and left-aligned 4.7 Temporal dimension 4.7.1 Spotting and duration of subtitles 4.7.2 Synchronization 4.7.3 Multiple voices 4.7.4 Shot changes 4.7.5 Delay function between subtitles 4.7.6 One or two lines? 4.7.7 Timecodes 4.7.8 Reading time 4.7.9 Six-second rule 4.7.10 DVD reading speed 4.8 Exercises 5. Punctuation and other Conventions 5.0 Preliminary discussion 5.1 In search of conventions 5.2 Punctuation conventions 5.2.1 Commas and semi-colons 5.2.2 Full stops 5.2.3 Colons 5.2.4 Parentheses and brackets 5.2.5 Exclamation marks and question marks 5.2.6 Dashes and hyphens 5.2.7 Triple dots 5.2.8 Asterisks 5.2.9 Slashes 5.2.10 Other symbols 5.2.11 Capital letters 5.2.12 Quotation marks or inverted commas 5.3 Other conventions 5.3.1 Italics 18.104.22.168 Songs 22.214.171.124 Letters and written documents 5.3.2 Colours 5.3.3 Abbreviations 5.3.4 Numbers 126.96.36.199 Cardinals 188.8.131.52 Ordinals 184.108.40.206 Time 220.127.116.11 Measurements and weights 5.4 A glimpse of the future? 5.5 Discussion points 5.6 Exercises 6. The Linguistics of Subtitling 6.0 Preliminary discussion 6.1 Subtitling: translation as rewriting 6.2 Text reduction 6.2.1 Condensation and reformulation 18.104.22.168 Condensation and reformulation at word level 22.214.171.124 Condensation and reformulation at clause/sentence level 6.2.2 Omissions 126.96.36.199 Omissions at word level 188.8.131.52 Omissions at clause/sentence level 6.3 Linguistic cohesion and coherence in subtitling 6.4 Segmentation and line breaks 6.4.1 Line breaks within subtitles: syntactic-semantic considerations 6.4.2 Line breaks across subtitles: syntactic-semantic considerations 6.4.3 Rhetorical segmentation 6.5 Discussion points 6.6 Exercises 7. Translation Issues 7.0 Preliminary discussion 7.1 Linguistic variation 7.2 Denotative versus connotative meaning 7.3 The translation of marked speech 7.3.1 Style 7.3.2 Register 7.3.3 Dialects, sociolects, and idiolects 184.108.40.206 Grammar 220.127.116.11 Lexicon 18.104.22.168 Accents and pronunciation 7.3.4 Emotionally charged language: taboo words, swearwords, interjections 7.4 The translation of culture-bound terms 7.5 The translation of songs 7.5.1 Deciding what to translate 7.5.2 Deciding how to translate 7.6 The translation of humour 7.6.1 Pinning down humour 7.6.2 Subtitling humour 7.7 Ideological issues: whose voice and whose message 7.8 Discussion points 7.9 Exercises 8. Further Activities 8.1 WinCAPS activities 8.2 Extra scenes 9. A Glossary of Terms Used in Subtitling 10. References 10.1 Bibliography 10.2 Filmography 11. Index