Bananas and plantains are major fruit crops in the tropics and subtropics, making a vital contribution to the economies of many countries. In the last 15 years, substantial changes have occurred in banana production, among them the increased importance of fungal and viral diseases and their serious impact on Cavendish export cultivars, smallholder plantains and cooking bananas. Changes in production systems such as protected greenhouse cultivation, organic, fair-trade and integrated cultivation and their respective certification schemes have also become prominent. This book provides an accessible review of the scientific principles of banana production and how these relate to field practices. Revised and updated with expanded coverage of world trade statistics and policies, breeding of new cultivars in relation to disease resistance and markets, prospects for genetically-modified bananas and the increasing role of endophytes in controlling pests and diseases, this new edition is an essential resource for researchers and students in horticulture.