Increasing concern surrounding the loss of natural forests and the decline in biodiversity has lead to a rise in research and policy initiatives in recent years. However, interest has focused primarily on lowland tropical rainforests. Tropical montane and temperate rainforests, which face similar pressures from human activities and play major roles in the livelihood of rural communities, are often ignored. Biodiversity Loss and Conservation in Fragmented Forest Landscapes is the product of over 10 years of intensive field research into the changing montane and temperate rainforests of Mexico and South America. By concentrating on these largely overlooked environments, the studies reported allow for comparative analysis across areas and help identify how human disturbance has impacted the biodiversity of all forest types. Chapters incorporate features of landscape ecology, floristic biodiversity, conservation and policy and vary from in-depth investigations of a single study area to integrated examinations across regions.