Studies of bilingual behavior have been proliferating for decades, yet short shrift has been given to its major manifestation, the incorporation of words from one language into the discourse of another.
This volume redresses that imbalance by going straight to the source: bilingual speakers in their social context. Building on more than three decades of original research based on vast quantities of spontaneous performance data and a highly ramified analytical apparatus, Shana Poplack characterizes the phenomenon of lexical borrowing in the speech community and in the grammar, both synchronically and diachronically.
In contrast to most other treatments, which deal with the product of borrowing (if they consider it at all), this book examines the process: how speakers go about incorporating foreign items into their bilingual discourse; how they adapt them to recipient-language grammatical structure; how these forms diffuse across speakers and communities; how long they persist in real time; and whether they change over the duration. Attacking some of the most contentious issue in
language mixing research empirically, it tests hypotheses about established loanwords, nonce borrowings and code-switches on a wealth of unique datasets on typologically similar and distinct language pairs. A major focus is the detailed analysis of integration: the principal mechanism underlying the borrowing process. Though
the shape the borrowed form assumes may be colored by community convention, Poplack shows that the act of transforming donor-language elements into native material is universal.
Emphasis on actual speaker behavior coupled with strong standards of proof, including data-driven reports of rates of occurrence, conditioning of variant choice and measures of statistical significance, make Borrowing an indispensable reference on language contact and bilingual behavior.
Shana Poplack is Distinguished University Professor and Canada Research Chair in Linguistics and director of the Sociolinguistics Laboratory at the University of Ottawa. Her work applies theoretical and methodological insights gained from the study of linguistic variation and change to a variety of fields, including bilingual language mixing, language contact and grammatical convergence, the genesis of African American Vernacular English, normative prescription and praxis, and the role of the school in impeding linguistic change.
Abbreviations and Conventions Preface Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 A Variationist Perspective on Borrowing Chapter 3 Bilingual Corpora Chapter 4 Borrowing in the Speech Community Chapter 5 Dealing with Variability in Loanword Integration Chapter 6 The Bare Facts of Borrowing Chapter 7 Confirmation through Replication: Other Language Pairs, Other Diagnostics Chapter 8 How Nonce Borrowings Become Loanwords Chapter 9 Distinguishing Borrowing and Code-Switching: Why it Matters Chapter 10 The Role of Phonetics in Borrowing and Integration Chapter 11 The Social Dynamics of Borrowing Chapter 12 Epilogue Appendix A Speaker Characteristics of the Ottawa-Hull Corpus Appendix B Sources of Attestation Histories for English-origin words in the Ottawa-hull corpus References Index