Burma has been racked by extensive ethnic conflict. As numerous groups sought to secure their individual ethnic rights, successive Burmese governments sought to destroy them through numerous counter-insurgency measures, negotiated ceasefires, and by integrating them into Burma Army controlled Border Guard Forces or militias. By Force of Arms provides background information on the numerous armed ethnic groups that have emerged in the country since independence. It highlights the various reasons for conflict and argues that while military force has been successfully used in preserving ethnic rights, as the country moves forward, new methods have to be explored. It states that for genuine peace to be attained, armed ethnic groups need to reassess their methodologies and motivations and both the Government and Non-State Armed Actors need to hold substantive political dialogue before there can be genuine peace.