An engaging range of period texts and theme books for AS and A Level history. The 'short nineteenth century', characterised by the growth of nationalism and revolutions, both political and economic, saw the emergence of a Europe of nation states and great industrial power. Peter Browning provides an incisive and lively account of four countries: Italy, France, Russia and Germany. For each, he identifies the main political and economic factors that help explain its development and assesses the role of national leaders such as Mazzini, Napoleon III, Nicholas I and Bismarck. He outlines historical debates about the four countries and sets their development in the context of the 'long nineteenth century'.
1. The 'short nineteenth century'; 2. Europe during the 1820s; 3. Changing the face of Europe: Italy, 1830-70; 4. Continuing to change: France, 1848-75; 5. Having to change: Russia, 1825-81; 6. Changing the face of Europe: Germany 1862-90; 7. Towards collectivism: Europe during the 1880s; 8. Revolutions and nationalities: Europe, 1825-90; Document study: Italian unification, 1848-71.