Car Suspension and Handling (4th Edition)

Car Suspension and Handling (4th Edition)

By: Geoffrey Howard (author), John Peter Whitehead (author), Donald Bastow (author)Hardback

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Description

Through appendices and diagrams, Car Suspension and Handling, Fourth Edition, outlines the purpose and history of vehicle suspension systems, while defining the basic parameters of suspension geometry. In addition, the book delves into human sensitivity to vibration and offers data on durability, tyre background information, steering calculations and suspension calculations. While always recognizing that there are differences in suspension requirements for different classes of vehicles and in various markets of the world for a given vehicle, this book focuses on the suspension and handling of cars or automobiles, as opposed to those characteristics of other types of road vehicles. Engineers in the automotive industry who are involved with handling analysis and design, students seeking more thorough understanding of the fundamental concepts and potential problem areas, and university/college libraries.

Contents

Preface to the Fourth Edition xi; Preface to the First Edition xiii; Notation xv; Chapter 1 Introduction 1; 1.1 Scope and Layout of the Book 1; 1.2 The Function of the Suspension System 3; 1.3 Suspension Geometry 9; 1.4 Kinematics and Compliance (K&C) 17; 1.5 Vehicle Dynamics 18; 1.6 References 19; Chapter 2 Disturbances and Sensitivity 23; 2.1 Road Irregularities 23; 2.2 Influence of Wheel Size 25; 2.3 Subjective Assessment of Ride 25; 2.4 Human Sensitivity to Vibration 27; 2.5 Measurement Standards for Vibration 30; 2.6 Influence of Noise on Assessment of Ride Comfort 34; 2.7 Influence of Phase of Differential Vibration on Assessment of Ride Comfort 35; 2.8 References 36; Chapter 3 The Wheel and Tire 39; 3.1 Introduction 39; 3.2 The Wheel Rim 39; 3.3 Tire Size Designation 43; 3.4 Tire Construction Types 45; 3.5 Tire Properties with Reference to Vehicle Braking 51; 3.6 Tire Properties with Reference to Vehicle Cornering 54; 3.7 Rolling Resistance 69; 3.8 Tire Uniformity 72; 3.9 Aspect Ratios 76; 3.10 Tire Selection and Air Chamber Geometry 77; 3.11 References 81; Chapter 4 Steering 83; 4.1 Dynamic Function of the Steering System 83; 4.2 Steering Angles: Effects of Tire Slip Angles and Steering and Suspension Kinematics 84; 4.3 Relative Positions of Front- and Rear-Wheel Tracks 89; 4.4 Understeer and Oversteer 89; 4.5 Directional Stability 92; 4.6 Torque in the Steering System 94; 4.7 Steering Torque Effects Due to Steering Geometry 95; 4.8 The Steering Column 99; 4.9 Steering Gear 101; 4.10 Constant Velocity (CV) Driveshaft Joints 104; 4.11 Torque Steer Effects 108; 4.12 Front-Wheel Steering Oscillations - Shimmy 110; 4.13 Power Assistance 114; 4.14 Electric Power Steering 119; 4.15 Rear-Wheel Steering Systems 121; 4.16 References 124; Chapter 5 Suspension Systems and Their Effects 127; 5.1 An Introduction to Suspension Design 127; 5.2 Suspension Systems in Common Use 129; 5.3 Spring Function and Theory 129; 5.4 Energy Storage Capacities 131; 5.5 Spring Natural Frequencies 133; 5.6 Leaf Springs 135; 5.7 Torsion Bars and Coil Springs 137; 5.8 Coil Spring Rates 139; 5.9 Wishbone Suspensions - Effect on Wheel Rates 140; 5.10 Gas Springs 142; 5.11 Ride Height Control 144; 5.12 Bump and Rebound Stops 146; 5.13 Interaction of Front and Rear Suspensions to Single Applied Disturbances 150; 5.14 Effect of Regularly Repeated Disturbances 153; 5.15 Suspension Roll-Center Height Determination 154; 5.16 Suspension Geometry for Anti-Dive and Anti-Squat 158; 5.17 Compliance - Effect on Road Noise and Harshness 162; 5.18 References 163; Chapter 6 Dampers 165; 6.1 Types of Damping 165; 6.2 Damping Effects on Vehicle Ride Spectra 166; 6.3 Damping Characteristics 168; 6.4 Measurement of Damper Characteristics 173; 6.5 Hydraulic Dampers 174; 6.6 Types of Hydraulic Dampers 175; 6.7 Lever-Arm Dampers 176; 6.8 Telescopic Dampers 176; 6.9 Other Arrangements - Hydropneumatic 183; 6.10 Critical Damping Coefficients 184; 6.11 References 185; Chapter 7 Front Suspensions 187; 7.1 Front Beam Axle - Reasons for Decline in Use 187; 7.2 Independent Suspensions 188; 7.3 Significant Obsolete Systems 189; 7.4 Recent Independent Suspension Systems 193; 7.5 Double Steering-Pivot Front Suspensions 199; 7.6 Friction in Strut and Link Type Suspensions 199; 7.7 References 201; Chapter 8 Rear Suspensions 203; 8.1 Classification of Types 203; 8.2 Live Rear Axles 204; 8.3 De Dion Axles 207; 8.4 Dead Rear Axles for Front-Wheel Drive Vehicles 209; 8.5 Twist-Beam Rear Axles for Front-Wheel Drive Vehicles 211; 8.6 Independent Rear Suspension Systems - Swing Axles 215; 8.7 Independent Rear Suspension Systems - Trailing and Semi-Trailing Arms 217; 8.8 Independent Rear Suspension Systems - Wishbones 223; 8.9 Independent Rear Suspension Systems - Multi-Link, and Strut and Link 224; 8.10 References 228; Chapter 9 Drive Layouts and Their Effects 231; 9.1 Drive Layouts 231; 9.2 Background to Front-Wheel Drive 232; 9.3 Front-Drive Versus Rear-Drive Arguments 234; 9.4 Modern Design Priorities 235; 9.5 Mass Distribution 236; 9.6 Dynamic Characteristics 239; 9.7 Four-Wheel Drive 242; 9.8 References 243; Chapter 10 Advanced Suspension Systems 245; 10.1 Ride and Handling Limitations 245; 10.2 Background to Advanced Suspensions 246; 10.3 Interconnected Suspensions 254; 10.4 Self-Leveling Suspensions 263; 10.5 Adaptive Damping 266; 10.6 Active Attitude Control 269; 10.7 Fully Active Suspension Systems 273; 10.8 Slow Active Suspension Systems 275; 10.9 Electronic Stability Aids 277; 10.10 References 279; Chapter 11 Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) for Suspension 283; 11.1 Computer Use in Suspension Design and Engineering 283; 11.2 Structural Engineering 284; 11.3 Computer Aided Engineering for Suspension Kinematics and Compliance (K&C) 285; 11.4 Computer Aided Engineering for Vehicle Dynamics 286; 11.5 Computer Aided Engineering for Noise Analysis and Refinement Prediction 290; 11.6 References 291; Appendix 1 Disturbances and Structural Durability 293; A1.1 Designing and Developing for Durability 293; A1.2 Special Surfaces 294; A1.3 Durability Cycles 296; A1.4 Laboratory Test Methods 297; A1.5 Road Load Data 297; A1.6 Powertrain Durability 299; A1.7 References 299; Appendix 2 More on Tires 301; A2.1 Introduction 301; A2.2 Pneumatic Tires 301; A2.3 Tubeless Tires 302; A2.4 Rubber Compounds 303; A2.5 Tread Patterns 306; A2.6 Extended Mobility Systems 309; A2.7 Non-Dimensional Tire Data 315; A2.8 References 318; Appendix 3 Steering Calculations and Worked Examples 319; A3.1 Steering Ball Joints 319; A3.2 Ball Pin Shank Fitting 319; A3.3 Ball Joints - Provision of Friction 322; A3.4 Steering Angles of Inner and Outer Front Wheels 324; A3.5 Different Inner and Outer Wheel Lock Angles 326; A3.6 Calculations for Independent Suspension Systems - Worked Examples 328; A3.7 Torque Steer Components 335; A3.8 Inertia Torques Affecting Steering 336; A3.9 Steering Geometry Errors, Bump, and Rebound 338; A3.10 Incorrect Relative Lengths of Cross-Steering Tube and Linkage Arms 342; A3.11 Incorrect Alignment of Steering Tube and Linkage 343; A3.12 Inertia Torques Due to Fore and Aft Links - Worked Examples 345; A3.13 Effect of Weight Transference in Cornering 354; A3.14 Sideways Forces - Effect of Influences Other than Lateral Acceleration 355; A3.15 Cornering Behavior - Worked Examples 357; A3.16 References 362; Appendix 4 Suspension Calculations and Worked Examples 363; A4.1 Basic Suspension System 363; A4.2 Vibrations of Basic System - Approximate Frequencies 364; A4.3 True Frequency, Sprung Mass 364; A4.4 True Frequency, Unsprung Mass 366; A4.5 Spring/Mass Systems - Worked Examples 367; A4.6 Effect of Viscous Damping on Natural Frequency - Critical Damping 370; A4.7 Effect of Damping on Forced Vibration Amplitudes 371; A4.8 Critical Damping - Worked Examples 375; A4.9 Relative Pitch and Bounce Frequencies - k2/ab Ratio 382; A4.10 Effect of k2/ab Ratio on Pitching Tendency 383; A4.11 k2/ab Ratio and Pitch Frequency 384; A4.12 k2/ab Ratio about the Vertical Axis - Effect on Transient Behavior 386; A4.13 k2/ab Ratio about the Vertical Axis - Desirable Value 389; A4.14 Pitch Excitation - Coupled Suspensions 389; A4.15 Attitude Changes Due to Braking 390; A4.16 Attitude Changes Due to Traction 394; A4.17 Attitude Changes - Inboard Brakes and Independent Suspension at the Drive End 395; A4.18 Percentage Anti-Dive and Anti-Squat - Calculation Requirements 397; A4.19 Anti-Pitch Rate of Car Suspension - Worked Examples 398; A4.20 Anti-Roll Rates 407; A4.21 Roll Angles in Cornering 408; A4.22 Moment of Inertia in Roll - Worked Examples 412; A4.23 Mass Distribution Front and Rear 422; A4.24 References 423; Index 425; About the Authors 453

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781860584398
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 476
  • ID: 9781860584398
  • weight: 868
  • ISBN10: 186058439X
  • edition: 4th Edition

Delivery Information

  • Saver Delivery: Yes
  • 1st Class Delivery: Yes
  • Courier Delivery: Yes
  • Store Delivery: Yes

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