Most of the world's energy still comes from fossil fuels, and there are still many strides being made in the efficiency and cost effectiveness of extracting these important and increasingly more elusive natural resources. This is only possible if the nature of the emergence, evolution, and parameter estimation of high grade reservoir rocks at great depths is known and a theory of their forecast is developed. Over 60 percent of world oil production is currently associated with carbonate reservoir rocks. The exploration, appraisal and development of these fields are significantly complicated by a number of factors. These factors include the structural complexity of the carbonate complexes, variability of the reservoir rock types and properties within a particular deposit, many unknowns in the evaluation of fracturing and its spatial variability, and the preservation of the reservoir rock qualities with depth. The main objective of most studies is discovering patterns in the reservoir rock property changes of carbonate deposits of different genesis, composition and age. A short list of the unsolved issues includes: the role of facies environment in the carbonate formation; the major geologic factors affecting the formation of high-capacity reservoir rocks and preservation of their properties; recommendations as to the use of the new techniques in studies of the structural parameters; and establishing a correlation between the major evaluation parameters. The focus of this volume is to show the scientific and engineering community a revolutionary process. The author perfected an earlier developed methodology in studies of the void space structure (Bagrintseva's method, 1982). This methodology is based on carbonate rock saturation with luminophore and on special techniques in processing of photographs made under UV light. The luminophore technique was combined with the raster electron microscopy and its variation, the studies under the cathode luminescence regime. This combination enabled a more detailed study of the reservoir void space, the nonuniformity in the open fracture evolution, their morphology, length and variability of openness. Over recent years these techniques have found wide application. Useful for the veteran engineer or scientist and the student alike, this book is a must-have for any geologist, engineer, or student working in the field of upstream petroleum engineering.
Introduction xi Acknowledgements xv 1 Carbonate Reservoir Rock Properties and Previous Studies 1 1.1 Brief Review of the Previous Studies 1 1.2 Major Terminology 4 2 Major Sedimentational Environments of Carbonate Rocks in Sedimentary Basins 13 2.1 Types of Carbonate Buildups 13 2.2 Open Shelf Edges 15 2.3 Genetic Types of Limestones and Dolomites 20 2.4 Effect of Post-Depositional Processes on the Void Space Formation 25 3 Conditions of Void Space Formation in Carbonate Rocks of Various Compositions and Genesis 29 3.1 Carbonate Rock Solubility and the Effect of Certain Factors on the Calcite and Dolomite Solubility Relationships 29 3.2 Pore Space Formation in Carbonate Rocks of Various Genesis 33 3.3 Formation of Fracture Capacity Space and Fluid Filtering in Fractured Rocks 37 4 Reservoir Rock Study Techniques 43 4.1 Major Evaluation Parameters and Laboratory Techniques of Their Determination 43 4.2 Method By Bagrintseva: The New Technique of Fracturing and Vugularity Evaluating through the Capillary Saturation of the Carbonate Rocks with Luminophore 47 4.3 Determination of Fracture Openness 52 4.4 Method By Bagrintseva-Preobrazhenskaya: The Evaluation Technique of Rock Hydrophobization By Wetting Contact Angle 54 4.5 Method By Shershukov: New Methodological Approach to the Theoretical Permeability Calculation from Mercury Injection Porometry 60 5 Natural Oil and Gas Reservoirs in Carbonate Formations of the Pre-Caspian Province 71 5.1 Brief Review of Geology and Major Oil and Gas Accumulation Zones in the Pre-Caspian Province 71 5.2 Karachaganak Oil-Gas-Condensate Field 77 5.3 Zhanazhol Oil-Gas-Condensate Field 99 5.4 Tengiz Oil Field 129 5.5 Korolevskoye Oil Field 153 5.6 Astrakhan Gas-Condensate Field 167 6 Natural Oil and Gas Reservoirs in the Timan-Pechora Province 181 6.1 North Khosedayu Oilfield 181 7 Types and Properties of the Riphaean Carbonate Reservoir Rocks 209 7.1 Yurubchenskoe Gas and Oil Field 209 8 Theoretical Fundamentals of the Reservoir Rock Evaluation and Forecast 231 8.1 Void Space Structure of Various Genesis Carbonate Deposits 231 8.2 Residual Fluid Saturation in the Carbonate Reservoir Rocks 237 8.3 Evaluation-Genetic Classification of the Carbonate Reservoir Rocks By Bagrintseva 249 8.4 Distribution Models of Different-Type Reservoir Rocks 253 9 Major Factors Determining the Formation and Preservation of High-Capacity Carbonate Reservoir Rocks 259 9.1 Conditions for the Formation of High-Capacity Reservoir Rocks 259 9.2 Evaluation of the Fracturing Role in the Development of the Complex-Type Reservoir Rocks 263 9.3 Correlations between Major Reservoir Rock Evaluation Parameters 268 9.4 Criteria of the Reservoir Rock Forecast and Evaluation 276 Conclusions 285 Attachments 287 References and Bibliography 319 Index 329
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