Challenges in Corrosion: Costs, Causes, Consequences and Control (Wiley Series in Corrosion)

Challenges in Corrosion: Costs, Causes, Consequences and Control (Wiley Series in Corrosion)

By: V. S. Sastri (author)Hardback

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Description

This book provides detailed methods to reduce or eliminate damage caused by corrosion; explains the human and environmental costs of corrosion; explains causes of and various types of corrosion; summarizes the costs of corrosion in different industries, including bridges, mining, petroleum refining, chemical, petrochemical, and pharmaceutical, pulp and paper, agricultural, food processing, electronics, home appliances; and discusses the technical aspects of the various methods available to detect, prevent, and control corrosion.

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About Author

V. S. Sastri PhD. has over 35 years experience in Corrosion and Chemical Processes. Since 1994 he has been a consultant for Sai Ram Consultants. Dr. Sastri has written six books, approximately 200 papers in scientific journals, and has edited proceedings for five international conferences of the Metallurgical Society of CIM.

Contents

Preface xvii Acknowledgments xix 1 Introduction and Forms of Corrosion 1 1.1 General or Uniform or Quasi-Uniform Corrosion 1 1.2 Galvanic Corrosion 4 1.2.1 Factors involved in Galvanic Corrosion 8 1.2.2 Galvanic Series and Corrosion 9 1.2.3 The Nature of the Metal/Solution Interface 10 1.2.4 Polarization of the Galvanic Cell 10 1.2.5 Testing of Galvanic Corrosion 13 1.3 Stray Current Corrosion 13 1.4 Localized Corrosion 14 1.4.1 Pitting Corrosion 15 1.4.2 Poultice Corrosion 17 1.4.3 Crevice Corrosion 17 1.4.4 Filiform Corrosion 18 1.4.5 Breakdown of Passivation 19 1.4.6 Coatings and Localized Corrosion 20 1.4.7 Electrochemical Studies of Localized Corrosion 20 1.4.8 Potentiostatic Methods 22 1.4.9 Prevention of Localized Corrosion 22 1.4.10 Corrosion Tests 23 1.4.11 Changes in Mechanical Properties 23 1.4.12 Electrochemical Techniques for the Study of Localized Corrosion 24 1.4.13 Electrochemical Impedance and Localized Corrosion 24 1.4.14 The SRET 25 1.5 Metallurgically Influenced Corrosion 25 1.5.1 The Influence of Metallurgical Properties in Aqueous Media 25 1.6 Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) 36 1.6.1 Growth and Metabolism 36 1.6.2 Environments 37 1.6.3 Biological Corrosion in Freshwater Environments 37 1.6.4 Biological Corrosion in Marine Environments 37 1.6.5 Industries Affected 38 1.6.6 Role of Some Microbiological Species in Corrosion 38 1.6.7 Attack by Organisms Other than SRB 39 1.6.8 Production of Biofilms 40 1.6.9 Production of Sulfides 41 1.6.10 Formation of Organic and Inorganic Acids 41 1.6.11 Gases from Organisms 41 1.6.12 MIC of Materials 41 1.6.13 Wood and Polymers 41 1.6.14 Hydrocarbons 42 1.6.15 Types of Corrosion of Metals and Alloys 42 1.6.16 Microbiological Impacts and Testing 43 1.6.17 Recognition of Microbiological Corrosion 43 1.7 Mechanically Assisted Corrosion 44 1.7.1 Corrosion and Wear 44 1.7.2 Abrasion 45 1.7.3 Wear Impact 45 1.7.4 Corrosion Effects 46 1.7.5 Wear Damage Mechanisms 46 1.7.6 Adhesive Wear 46 1.7.7 Abrasive Wear 47 1.7.8 Fatigue Wear 47 1.7.9 Impact Wear 47 1.7.10 Chemical or Corrosive Wear 48 1.7.11 Oxidative Wear 49 1.7.12 Electric-Arc-Induced Wear 50 1.7.13 Erosion Corrosion 50 1.7.14 Impingement 51 1.7.15 Effect of Turbulence 52 1.7.16 Galvanic Effect 52 1.7.17 Water Droplet Impingement Erosion 52 1.7.18 Cavitation 53 1.7.19 Cavitation Erosion 53 1.7.20 Impacting Bubbles 54 1.7.21 Prevention 55 1.7.22 Fretting Corrosion 55 1.7.23 Mechanism of Fretting Corrosion 56 1.7.24 Modeling Fretting Corrosion 57 1.7.25 Fretting CF 58 1.7.26 Prevention of Fretting Wear 58 1.7.27 Testing 59 1.7.28 Measurement of Wear and Corrosion 59 1.7.29 Galling Stress 59 1.7.30 CF 59 1.7.31 Morphology of CF Ruptures 60 1.7.32 Important Factors of CF 61 1.7.33 Stresses 61 1.7.34 Stress Ratio 62 1.7.35 Material Factors 62 1.7.36 Mechanism of CF 63 1.7.37 Crack Initiation 64 1.7.38 Crack Propagation 65 1.7.39 Prevention of CF 66 1.8 Environmentally Induced Cracking (EIC) 67 1.8.1 Testing of CF 67 1.8.2 Types of Tests 68 1.8.3 Sampling in CF Tests 68 1.8.4 SCC 69 1.8.5 Morphology 70 1.8.6 Some Key Factors of SCC 71 1.8.7 Material Properties in SCC 72 1.8.8 Potential pH Diagram and SCC 72 1.8.9 Active Passive Behavior and Susceptible Zone of Potentials 73 1.8.10 Electrode Potential and its Effect on Crack Growth 74 1.8.11 Prevention of Hydrogen Damage 87 References 89 2 Corrosion Costs 95 2.1 Introduction 95 2.2 Data Collection and Economic Analysis 96 2.2.1 The Uhlig Report (United States of America 1949) 96 2.2.2 The Hoar Report (United Kingdom 1970) 96 2.2.3 Report of the Committee on Corrosion and Protection (Japan 1977) 100 2.2.4 The Battelle-NBS Report (United States, 1978) 102 2.2.5 The Economics of Corrosion in Australia 108 2.2.6 Kuwait (1995) 114 2.2.7 Costs of Corrosion in Other Countries 115 2.3 Tribology 123 2.3.1 Economies of Wear and Corrosion in the Canadian Industry 123 2.3.2 Strategies Against Wear and Friction 124 References 126 3 Corrosion Causes 127 3.1 Introduction 127 3.2 Corrosion in Conventional Concrete Bridges 127 3.3 Corrosion of Prestressed Concrete Bridges 127 3.4 Reinforcement Corrosion in Concrete 128 3.5 Mechanism of Corrosion and Assessment Techniques in Concrete 128 3.5.1 Chloride Ingress and the Corrosion Threshold 128 3.5.2 Carbonation of Concrete and Corrosion 129 3.5.3 Conventional Reinforced Concrete 130 3.6 Steel Bridges 133 3.7 Cable and Suspension Bridges 133 3.8 Corrosion of Underground Pipelines 135 3.8.1 Types of Corrosion of Underground Pipelines 136 3.8.2 Replacement/Rehabilitation 140 3.8.3 Pipeline Integrity Management Programs 141 3.8.4 In-line Inspections 141 3.8.5 Aging Coating 141 3.8.6 Stress Corrosion Cracking 141 3.8.7 Corrosion-Related Failures 142 3.9 Waterways and Ports 143 3.9.1 Areas of Major Corrosion Impact 143 3.9.2 Fresh Water 144 3.10 Hazardous Materials Storage 145 3.10.1 Aboveground Storage Tanks 145 3.10.2 Underground Fuel Storage Tanks 148 3.11 Corrosion Problems in Airports 148 3.12 Railroads 149 3.13 Gas Distribution 150 3.13.1 Pipe Failures 151 3.14 Drinking Water and Sewer Systems 152 3.14.1 External Corrosion in Water Systems 153 3.15 Electrical Utilities 154 3.15.1 Fossil Fuel Steam Supply Systems 154 3.15.2 Hydraulic Plants 156 3.15.3 Areas of Major Corrosion Impact on Electric Utility Systems 157 3.16 Telecommunications 157 3.16.1 Shelters 158 3.17 Motor Vehicles 160 3.17.1 Corrosion Causes 160 3.18 Ships 161 3.19 Aircraft 162 3.19.1 Corrosion Modes 162 3.20 Railroad Cars 164 3.21 Hazardous Materials Transport 167 3.22 Oil and Gas Exploration and Production 170 3.23 Corrosion in the Mining Industry 172 3.23.1 Wire Rope 173 3.24 Petroleum Refining 174 3.24.1 Areas of Major Corrosion Impact 175 3.24.2 Water-Related Corrosion 175 3.24.3 Processing-Related Corrosion 175 3.24.4 Naphthenic Acid Corrosion 175 3.24.5 Corrosion-Related Failure in Refineries 176 3.25 Chemical Petrochemical and Pharmaceutical Industries 177 3.26 Pulp and Paper Industry 179 3.27 Agricultural Production 181 3.28 The Food Processing Sector 182 3.29 Electronics 183 3.30 Corrosion Problems in Home Appliances 186 3.30.1 High-Efficiency Furnaces 187 3.30.2 Air Conditioners 187 3.31 Corrosion Problems in the US Dept. of Defense 188 3.31.1 Weapon Systems 188 3.31.2 Army 189 3.31.3 Vehicles 189 3.31.4 Case Study of HMMWV 190 3.31.5 Helicopters 192 3.31.6 Air Force 193 3.31.7 KC-135 Stratotanker 193 3.31.8 Navy 195 3.31.9 Submarines 196 3.31.10 Aircraft 197 3.32 Nuclear Waste Storage 197 3.32.1 Transition from Interim Storage to Permanent Storage 198 3.32.2 Cask Design for Permanent Storage 199 3.32.3 Effect of Location on Corrosion of Nuclear Storage Containers 199 References 200 4 Corrosion Control and Prevention 205 4.1 Introduction 205 4.2 Protective Coatings 205 4.2.1 Organic Coatings 206 4.2.2 Metallic Coatings 212 4.3 Metals and Alloys 214 4.4 Corrosion Inhibitors 216 4.4.1 Petroleum Production Transportation and Refining 217 4.4.2 Pulp and Paper 218 4.4.3 Iron and Steel 218 4.4.4 Additives 218 4.4.5 Deicers 219 4.5 Engineering Composites and Plastics 219 4.5.1 Composites 219 4.5.2 Polyethylene 220 4.5.3 Fluoropolymers 221 4.6 Cathodic and Anodic Protection 221 4.7 Services 222 4.8 Research and Development 223 4.9 Corrosion Control of Bridges 223 4.9.1 Reinforced Concrete Bridges 223 4.9.2 Steel Bridges 237 4.10 Mitigating Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel in Underwater Tunnels (36) 244 4.11 Corrosion of Underground Gas and Liquid Transmission Pipelines 244 4.11.1 Stray Current Corrosion 245 4.11.2 Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) 245 4.11.3 Mitigation of External Corrosion 247 4.11.4 Operations and Maintenance 248 4.11.5 Cost of Operation and Maintenance (Corrosion Control) 250 4.11.6 Aging Coating 251 4.11.7 Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) 251 4.12 Gas Distribution 254 4.12.1 Pipe Failures 255 4.12.2 Plastic Pipe 255 4.13 Waterways and Ports 255 4.14 Hazardous Materials Storage 257 4.14.1 Nuclear Waste Storage 257 4.15 Corrosion Control of Storage Tanks 260 4.15.1 Aboveground Storage Tanks Internal Coatings 260 4.15.2 Aboveground Storage Tanks External Coatings 262 4.15.3 Aboveground Storage Tanks Cathodic Protection 262 4.15.4 Underground Storage Tanks Corrosion Control 262 4.15.5 Underground Storage Tanks Cathodic Protection 263 4.15.6 Polymer Tanks 263 4.16 Airports 263 4.17 Railroads 264 4.17.1 Corrosion of Railroad Cars 264 4.18 Drinking Water and Sewer Systems 265 4.18.1 Corrosion Control in the Water Supply 265 4.18.2 Corrosion Control in Water Treatment Facilities 265 4.18.3 Corrosion Inhibitors pH Control and Alkalinity Adjusters 266 4.18.4 Corrosion Control in Water Storage Systems 268 4.18.5 Corrosion Control in Water Transmission Systems 269 4.18.6 Corrosion Control in Water Distribution Systems 271 4.18.7 Corrosion Control in Sewage Water Systems 273 4.18.8 Optimized Management by Combining Corrosion Control Methods 273 4.19 Electric Utilities 275 4.20 Telecommunications 275 4.21 Motor Vehicles 277 4.22 Ships 281 4.22.1 Design 281 4.23 Corrosion Control in Aircraft 286 4.23.1 Material Selection 287 4.23.2 Coating Selection 287 4.23.3 Drainage 287 4.23.4 Sealants 288 4.24 Hazardous Materials Transport (HAZMAT) 288 4.25 Oil and Gas Exploration and Production 289 4.26 Corrosion and its Prevention in the Mining Industry 292 4.27 Petroleum Refining 293 4.28 Corrosion Control in the Chemical Petrochemical and Pharmaceutical Industries 295 4.28.1 Corrosion-Resistant Alloys 296 4.28.2 Piping Design Factors 297 4.28.3 Construction Stage Checks 298 4.28.4 Remedial Action and Diagnostic Analysis 300 4.29 Pulp and Paper Industrial Sector 300 4.29.1 Equipment Design 300 4.29.2 Process Design and Corrosion Inhibitors 301 4.29.3 Weight Loss Coupons 301 4.29.4 Inspection and Preventive Maintenance 301 4.30 Agricultural Production 302 4.30.1 Keeping Equipment Clean/Dry 302 4.30.2 Material Selection 302 4.30.3 External Coatings/Paint 303 4.30.4 Internal Linings 303 4.30.5 Cathodic Protection 303 4.31 Food Processing 303 4.32 Corrosion Forms in the Electronics Industry 304 4.32.1 Cathodic Corrosion 304 4.32.2 Pore-Creep in Electrical Contacts and Metallic Joints 305 4.32.3 Fretting Corrosion of Separate Connectors with Tin Finishes 305 4.32.4 Galvanic Corrosion 305 4.32.5 Micropitting on Aluminum 305 4.32.6 Corrosion of Aluminum in Chlorinated Media 306 4.32.7 Solder Corrosion 306 4.32.8 Corrosion of Magnetic and Magneto-Optic Devices 306 4.33 Home Appliances 306 4.33.1 Corrosion Control by Sacrificial Anodes 306 4.33.2 Corrosion Control by Corrosion-Resistant Materials 307 4.33.3 Corrosion Control by Coatings and Paint 308 4.34 Defense 308 4.34.1 Army 308 4.34.2 Navy 311 4.34.3 Air Force 311 4.35 Preventive Strategies 312 References 313 5 Consequences of Corrosion 317 5.1 Introduction 317 5.2 Corrosion Studies 317 5.2.1 The Battelle-NBS Study 317 5.3 Corrosion Damage Defects and Failures 325 5.3.1 Point Defects 326 5.3.2 Line Defects 327 5.3.3 Planar and Surface Defects 327 5.3.4 Bulk Defects 327 5.3.5 Fault 327 5.3.6 Connector Corrosion 327 5.3.7 Failure 328 5.4 Age-Reliability Characteristics 389 5.5 Historical Implications of Corrosion 390 5.6 Social Implications of Corrosion 392 5.7 The Nuclear Industry 392 5.8 Fossil Fuel Energy Systems 393 5.9 The Aerospace Industry 393 5.10 The Electrical and Electronics Industry 393 5.11 The Marine and Offshore Industry 394 5.12 The Automobile Industry 395 5.13 Bridges 395 5.14 Biomedical Engineering 397 5.15 The Defense Industry 397 5.16 Corrosion and Environmental Implications 397 References 398 Index 403

Product Details

  • publication date: 28/08/2015
  • ISBN13: 9781118522103
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 432
  • ID: 9781118522103
  • weight: 718
  • ISBN10: 1118522109

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