Chemistry (7th International student edition)

Chemistry (7th International student edition)

By: Neil D. Jespersen (author), James E. Brady (author), Alison Hyslop (author)Paperback

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Description

Chemistry, Seventh Edition provides the necessary practice, support, concept mastery and individualized instruction that ensure success in the General Chemistry course. The unique "chemical tools" approach employed in this book provides a way of thinking that helps readers develop the ability to analyze and solve both mathematical and conceptual problems.

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Contents

0 | A Very Brief History of Chemistry 1 0.1 Chemistry s Important Concepts 2 0.2 Supernovas and the Elements 3 0.3 Elements and the Earth 5 0.4 Dalton s Atomic Theory 7 0.5 Internal Structure of the Atom 8 Tools for Problem Solving 21 Review Questions and Problems 21 1 | Scientific Measurements 24 1.1 Laws and Theories: The Scientific Method 25 1.2 Matter and Its Classifications 27 1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties 31 1.4 Measurement of Physical and Chemical Properties 32 1.5 The Uncertainty of Measurements 41 1.6 Dimensional Analysis 45 1.7 Density and Specific Gravity 49 Tools for Problem Solving 56 Review Questions and Problems 57 2 | Elements, Compounds, and the Periodic Table 63 2.1 The Periodic Table 64 2.2 Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids 67 2.3 Molecules and Chemical Formulas 70 2.4 Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations 77 2.5 Ionic Compounds 80 2.6 Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds 86 2.7 Molecular Compounds 91 2.8 Nomenclature of Molecular Compounds 94 Tools for Problem Solving 100 Review Questions and Problems 102 3 | The Mole and Stoichiometry 108 3.1 The Mole and Avogadro s Number 109 3.2 The Mole, Formula Mass, and Stoichiometry 115 3.3 Chemical Formula and Percentage Composition 118 3.4 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas 120 3.5 Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations 129 3.6 Limiting Reactants 137 3.7 Theoretical Yield and Percentage Yield 141 Tools for Problem Solving 145 Review Questions and Problems 147 4 | Molecular View of Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 155 4.1 Describing Solutions 156 4.2 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes 158 4.3 Equations for Ionic Reactions 160 4.4 Introducing Acids and Bases 164 4.5 Acid Base Nomenclature 172 4.6 Double Replacement (Metathesis) Reactions 174 4.7 Molarity 184 4.8 Solution Stoichiometry 191 4.9 Titrations and Chemical Analysis 195 Tools for Problem Solving 204 Review Questions and Problems 205 5 | Oxidation Reduction Reactions 212 5.1 Oxidation Reduction Reactions 213 5.2 Balancing Redox Equations 220 5.3 Acids as Oxidizing Agents 225 5.4 Redox Reactions of Metals 229 5.5 Molecular Oxygen as an Oxidizing Agent 233 5.6 Stoichiometry of Redox Reactions 237 Tools for Problem Solving 242 Review Questions and Problems 243 6 | Energy and Chemical Change 251 6.1 Energy: The Ability to Do Work 252 6.2 Heat, Temperature, and Internal Energy 255 6.3 Measuring Heat 258 6.4 Energy of Chemical Reactions 264 6.5 Heat, Work, and the First Law of Thermodynamics 266 6.6 Heats of Reaction 270 6.7 Thermochemical Equations 275 6.8 Hess s Law 277 6.9 Standard Heats of Reaction 283 Tools for Problem Solving 291 Review Questions and Problems 292 7 | The Quantum Mechanical Atom 300 7.1 Electromagnetic Radiation 301 7.2 Line Spectra and the Rydberg Equation 309 7.3 The Bohr Theory 311 7.4 The Wave Mechanical Model 314 7.5 Quantum Numbers of Electrons in Atoms 319 7.6 Electron Spin 322 7.7 Energy Levels and Ground State Electron Configurations 324 7.8 Periodic Table and Ground State Electron Configurations 326 7.9 Atomic Orbitals: Shapes and Orientations 332 7.10 Periodic Table and Properties of the Elements 336 Tools for Problem Solving 346 Review Questions and Problems 347 8 | The Basics of Chemical Bonding 352 8.1 Energy Requirements for Bond Formation 353 8.2 Ionic Bonding 354 8.3 Octet Rule and Electron Configurations of Ions 358 8.4 Lewis Symbols: Keeping Track of Valence Electrons 362 8.5 Covalent Bonds 364 8.6 Bond Polarity and Electronegativity 368 8.7 Lewis Structures 373 8.8 Resonance Structures 384 8.9 Covalent Compounds of Carbon 387 Tools for Problem Solving 395 Review Questions and Problems 396 9 | Theories of Bonding and Structure 403 9.1 Five Basic Molecular Geometries 404 9.2 Molecular Shapes and the VSEPR Model 407 9.3 Molecular Structure and Dipole Moments 415 9.4 Valence Bond Theory 420 9.5 Hybrid Orbitals and Molecular Geometry 423 9.6 Hybrid Orbitals and Multiple Bonds 434 9.7 Molecular Orbital Theory Basics 440 9.8 Delocalized Molecular Orbitals 447 9.9 Bonding in Solids 448 9.10 Bonding of the Allotropes of the Elements 450 Tools for Problem Solving 457 Review Questions and Problems 459 10 | Properties of Gases 465 10.1 A Molecular Look at Gases 466 10.2 Measurement of Pressure 467 10.3 Gas Laws 472 10.4 Stoichiometry Using Gas Volumes 478 10.5 Ideal Gas Law 482 10.6 Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures 490 10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases 501 10.8 Real Gases 504 Tools for Problem Solving 508 Review Questions and Problems 509 11 | Intermolecular Attractions and the Properties of Liquids and Solids 515 11.1 Intermolecular Forces 516 11.2 Intermolecular Forces and Physical Properties 525 11.3 Changes of State and Dynamic Equilibria 531 11.4 Vapor Pressures of Liquids and Solids 533 11.5 Boiling Points of Liquids 535 11.6 Energy and Changes of State 537 11.7 Phase Diagrams 541 11.8 Le Chatelier s Principle and Changes of State 546 11.9 Determining Heats of Vaporization 547 11.10 Structures of Crystalline Solids 549 11.11 Determining the Structure of Solids 557 11.12 Crystal Types and Physical Properties 560 Tools for Problem Solving 566 Review Questions and Problems 568 12 | Mixtures at the Molecular Level: Properties of Solutions 575 12.1 Intermolecular Forces and the Formation of Solutions 576 12.2 Heats of Solution 580 12.3 Solubility as a Function of Temperature 584 12.4 Henry s Law 586 12.5 Concentration Units 588 12.6 Colligative Properties 595 12.7 Heterogeneous Mixtures 614 Tools for Problem Solving 619 Review Questions and Problems 620 13 | Chemical Kinetics 625 13.1 Factors that Affect the Rate of Chemical Change 626 13.2 Measuring Reaction Rates 628 13.3 Rate Laws 634 13.4 Integrated Rate Laws 643 13.5 Molecular Basis of Collision Theory 654 13.6 Molecular Basis of Transition State Theory 657 13.7 Activation Energies 660 13.8 Mechanisms of Reactions 665 13.9 Catalysts 671 Tools for Problem Solving 676 Review Questions and Problems 678 14 | Chemical Equilibrium 686 14.1 Dynamic Equilibrium in Chemical Systems 687 14.2 Equilibrium Laws 690 14.3 Equilibrium Laws Based on Pressures or Concentrations 694 14.4 Equilibrium Laws for Heterogeneous Reactions 698 14.5 Position of Equilibrium and the Equilibrium Constant 699 14.6 Equilibrium and Le Chatelier s Principle 701 14.7 Calculating Equilibrium Constants 706 14.8 Using Equilibrium Constants to Calculate Concentrations 709 Tools for Problem Solving 723 Review Questions and Problems 725 15 | Acids and Bases, A Molecular Look 731 15.1 Bronsted Lowry Acids and Bases 732 15.2 Strengths of Bronsted Lowry Acids and Bases 737 15.3 Periodic Trends in the Strengths of Acids 741 15.4 Lewis Acids and Bases 746 15.5 Acid Base Properties of Elements and Their Oxides 750 15.6 Advanced Ceramics and Acid Base Chemistry 753 Tools for Problem Solving 757 Review Questions and Problems 758 16 | Acid Base Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions 762 16.1 Water, pH, and p Notation 763 16.2 pH of Strong Acid and Base Solutions 767 16.3 Ionization Constants, Ka and Kb 769 16.4 Determining Ka and Kb Values 773 16.5 pH of Weak Acid and Weak Base Solutions 776 16.6 Acid Base Properties of Salt Solutions 781 16.7 Buffer Solutions 785 16.8 Polyprotic Acids 792 16.9 Acid Base Titrations 798 Tools for Problem Solving 807 Review Questions and Problems 808 17 | Solubility and Simultaneous Equilibria 816 17.1 Equilibria in Solutions of Slightly Soluble Salts 817 17.2 Solubility of Basic Salts Is Influenced by Acids 828 17.3 Equilibria in Solutions of Metal Oxides and Sulfides 831 17.4 Selective Precipitation 834 17.5 Equilibria Involving Complex Ions 841 17.6 Complexation and Solubility 845 Tools for Problem Solving 848 Review Questions and Problems 849 18 | Thermodynamics 855 18.1 First Law of Thermodynamics 856 18.2 Spontaneous Change 860 18.3 Entropy 862 18.4 Second Law of Thermodynamics 867 18.5 Third Law of Thermodynamics 871 18.6 Standard Free Energy Change, G 874 18.7 Maximum Work and G 876 18.8 Free Energy and Equilibrium 880 18.9 Equilibrium Constants and G 886 18.10 Bond Energies 890 Tools for Problem Solving 895 Review Questions and Problems 896 19 | Electrochemistry 904 19.1 Galvanic (Voltaic) Cells 905 19.2 Cell Potentials 910 19.3 Utilizing Standard Reduction Potentials 917 19.4 E cell and G 923 19.5 Cell Potentials and Concentrations 926 19.6 Electricity 932 19.7 Electrolytic Cells 939 19.8 Electrolysis Stoichiometry 945 19.9 Practical Applications of Electrolysis 949 Tools for Problem Solving 954 Review Questions and Problems 955 20 | Nuclear Reactions and Their Role in Chemistry 962 20.1 Conservation of Mass and Energy 963 20.2 Nuclear Binding Energy 965 20.3 Radioactivity 967 20.4 Band of Stability 973 20.5 Transmutation 977 20.6 Measuring Radioactivity 980 20.7 Medical and Analytical Applications of Radionuclides 984 20.8 Nuclear Fission and Fusion 986 Tools for Problem Solving 995 Review Questions and Problems 996 21 | Metal Complexes 1002 21.1 Complex Ions 1003 21.2 Metal Complex Nomenclature 1009 21.3 Coordination Number and Structure 1011 21.4 Isomers of Metal Complexes 1013 21.5 Bonding in Metal Complexes 1017 21.6 Biological Functions of Metal Ions 1024 Tools for Problem Solving 1028 Review Questions and Problems 1028 22 | Organic Compounds, Polymers, and Biochemicals 1033 22.1 Organic Structures and Functional Groups 1034 22.2 Hydrocarbons: Structure, Nomenclature and Reactions 1039 22.3 Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen 1046 22.4 Organic Derivatives of Ammonia 1054 22.5 Organic Polymers 1056 22.6 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 1063 22.7 Nucleic Acids, DNA, and RNA 1072 Tools for Problem Solving 1077 Review Questions and Problems 1080 APPENDICES Appendix A: Review of Mathematics A-1 Appendix B: Answers to Practice Exercises and Selected Review Problems Online Appendix C: Tables of Selected Data A-28 Glossary Online Index I-1

Product Details

  • publication date: 02/09/2014
  • ISBN13: 9781118717271
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 1144
  • ID: 9781118717271
  • weight: 2236
  • ISBN10: 1118717279
  • edition: 7th International student edition

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