Child passenger safety will remain an important public health issue for years ahead as the research community strives to find solutions to persistent problems such as out-of-position child occupants and complex paediatric injuries. fundamental to this quest is a better understanding of the biochemical responses and tolerance limits of children. However, the overall effectiveness of child restraint systems can only be evaluated from real-world field dat, and not from laboratory test devices. Until such time as injuries can be mitigated or prevented, the traffic safety community must persist in keeping child occupant protection as a priority in public policy decisions and in educating parents and other adults responsible for children. This book is a collection of papers which adds to the body of knowledge on the effectiveness of child restraint systems. Data from observational surveys, insurance files, hospital records, and field studies - including in-depth crash investigations are included. The following topics are addressed: injuries to children in accidents; the use of CARS and protection; test procedure, tools, and biomechanics.
The knowledge presented in this volume is another building block towards reducing casualties to child occupants in motor vehicles, It should be of interest to all those involved in this field.
Injuries to children accidents: characteristics of children in rollover collisions; head injuries to motor vehicle occupants aged 0-5 years; accuracy of police crash reports in determining child restraint usage and injury severity in the United States; injury of children in cars depending on the type of restraint. The use of CARS and protection: patterns of inappropriate restraint for children in crashes; determinants of injury severity with child exposure to passenger air bag deployment; mechanisms of lap belt an airbag injuries in children. test procedures, tools and biomechanics: biomechanical tolerance criteria for paediatric populations; viscoelastic characterisations of the hybrid III three-year old and Q3 dummy necks; comparison of the Q3 and hybrid III - three-year-old dummy head and neck response during side air bag loading; comparisons of the Q3 and P3 dummy kinematics and kinetics in frontal and oblique impacts. Poster papers: an improved ISOFIX system for rearward-facing child seats; child safety seat misuse - influence of harness type and accuracy of parental report; changes in occupant restraint use among children aged 0-14 years - United States, 1993-1997.