Today, the whole world is watching China with great interest and that includes India. China has been termed - a threat, a challenge, an opportunity, a concern, a competitor, the next superpower, a global player and many more things. It depends, who is looking at it and from where? In 2009, United Service Institution (USI) of India decided to commence a five years study programme on China. Towards that end, we held the National Security Seminar 2009 titled 'Rising China - Opportunity or Strategic Challenge' on 25-26 November 2009. Its proceedings have been published in the form of a book.