The first part of a two-volume set concerning the field of Clifford (geometric) algebra, this work consists of thematically organized chapters that provide a broad overview of cutting-edge topics in mathematical physics and the physical applications of Clifford algebras. This volume is devoted specifically to the mathematical aspects of Clifford algebras and their applications in physics. Algebraic geometry, cohomology, non-communicative spaces, "q"-deformations and the related quantum groups, and projective geometry provide the basis for algebraic topics covered. Physical applications and extensions of physical theories such as the theory of quaternionic spin, a projective theory of hadron transformation laws, and electron scattering are also presented, showing the broad applicability of Clifford geometric algebras in solving physical problems. Treatment of the structure theory of quantum Clifford algebras, the connection to logic, group representations, and computational techniques including symbolic calculations and theorem proving rounds out the presentation.