This is the first monograph to specifically focus on fundamentals and applications of polyelectrolytes, a class of molecules that gained substantial interest due to their unique combination of properties. Combining both features of organic semiconductors and polyelectrolytes, they offer a broad field for fundamental research as well as applications to analytical chemistry, optical imaging, and opto-electronic devices. The initial chapters introduce readers to the synthesis, optical and electrical properties of various conjugated polyelectrolytes. This is followed by chapters on the applications of these materials in optical sensing and imaging with emphasis on biological systems, while the final section addresses the emerging applications of conjugated polyelectrolytes in optoelectronic devices, concluding with an in-depth discussion of structure-property relationship. The editors and contributors are all pioneers and experts in this expanding field. This monograph is not only for chemists, materials scientists, and physicists, but also a unique source of knowledge for readers with scientific background interested in polyelectrolytes.
Bin Liu is Associate Professor in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS). Her research focuses on the development of water-dispersable conjugated polymers with explorations on their sensing, imaging and device applications. She has over 130 scientific publications and has received several awards including the NUS Young Investigator Award, Singapore National Science and Technology Young Scientist Award and L?Oreal-Singapore Women in Science National Fellowship. Guillermo C. Bazan is Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He has over 300 publications and an H-index of 72. Much of his work is centered on the applications of conjugated polyelectrolytes in biosensing technologies and the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. Guillermo Bazan's awards and recognitions include the 2006 ACS Cope Scholar Award, the 2005 Bessel Award and the 2003 National Science Foundation Special Creativity Award. In addition, he serves as a member of the editorial advisory boards of Macromolecules and Advanced Materials.
PREFACE DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF CONJUGATED POLYELECTROLYTES Introduction Poly(arylene)s Poly(arylene ethynylene)s Poly(arylene vinylene)s Conclusion ALL-CONJUGATED ROD-ROD DIBLOCK COPOLYMERS CONTAINING CONJUGATED POLYELECTROLYTE BLOCKS Introduction All-Conjugated, Cationic Polyfluorene-b-Polythiophene Diblock Copolymers All-Conjugated Cationic Polyfluorene-b-Polyfluorene Diblock Copolymers Conclusion IONICALLY FUNCTIONALIZED POLYACETYLENES Introduction Polymers from Ionically Functionalized Cyclooctatetraenes Polymers from Ionically Functionalized Acetylenes Summary AGGREGATION PROPERTIES OF CONJUGATED POLYELECTROLYTES Introduction Aggregation: from Disordered Clusters to Structured Vesicles Experimental Studies on Aggregation Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Aggregation in Solution Learning How to Control Aggregation Conclusions and Outlook SENSING VIA QUENCHING OF CONJUGATED POLYELECTROLYTE FLUORESCENCE Background and Introduction Small Ions/Molecules Sensing Protein and Enzyme Activity Sensing DNA sensing Concluding Remarks SENSING APPLICATIONS VIA ENERGY TRANSFER FROM CONJUGATED POLYELECTROLYTES Introduction DNA and RNA Sensing with Conjugated Polyelectrolytes Protein Sensing with Conjugated Polyelectrolytes Biological/Chemical Small-Molecules Sensing with Conjugated Polyelectrolytes Conclusion SENSING VIA CONFORMATIONAL CHANGES OF CONJUGATED POLYTHIOPHENES Introduction Structural Characteristics of Conjugated Polythiophenes Thermochromic Sensors Ionochromic Sensors Affinitychromic Sensors Conclusions CONJUGATED POLYELECTROLYTE-BASED BIOCIDE APPLICATIONS Introduction Dark Bactericidal Activity of Conjugated Polyelectrolytes Light-Activated Biocidal Activity Photochemistry, Photophysics, and Modeling Conjugated Cationic Oligomers and Polymers as Antimicrobials Incorporation into Other Materials and Formats Activity against Viruses and Biofilms Toxicity toward Mammalian Cells Summary and Outlook CONJUGATED POLYELECTROLYTE-BASED IMAGING AND MONITORING OF PROTEIN AGGREGATION Introduction CPEs for Bioimaging Amyloid Fibrils and Protein Aggregation Diseases Novel Scaffolds for the Detection of a Diversity of Protein Aggregates Conclusion CHARGE INJECTION MECHANISM IN PLEDS AND CHARGE TRANSPORT IN CONJUGATED POLYELECTROLYTES Introduction Charge Injection Mechanism in Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes Using Conjugated Polyelectrolytes as Electron-Injecting/Transporting Layers Charge Transport in Conjugated Polyelectrolytes Conclusion ORGANIC OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES CONTAINING WATER/ALCOHOL-SOLUBLE CONJUGATED POLYMERS AND CONJUGATED POLYELECTROLYTES Introduction Polymer Light-Emitting Devices Based on Water/Alcohol-Soluble Conjugated Polymers and Conjugated Polyelectrolytes Water/Alcohol-Soluble Conjugated Polymers as Efficient Electron Injection/Transport Layer in PLEDs Water/Alcohol-Soluble Conjugated Polymers/Polyelectrolytes as Cathode Interlayer for Polymer Solar Cells Applications of Water/Alcohol-Soluble Conjugated Polymers and Conjugated Polyelectrolytes in Other Optoelectronic Devices Summary Conclusion OPTICAL PROCESSES IN CONJUGATED POLYELECTROLYTES DEPENDENCE ON CHAIN CONFORMATION AND FILM MORPHOLOGY Introduction Hydrophobic and Electrostatic Interactions in CPEs Amphiphilic CPEs and CPE-Surfactant Complexes: toward Ordered Structures and Controlled Photophysics at the Solid State Photoluminescence Quenching in CPEs: Fast Exciton Dynamics Effect of the Ion and Counterion Choice on the CPE Photoluminescence Nature of the Excited States: Charge-Transfer States and Polarons in CPEs Conclusions INDEX